Mitosis is the cell division of aparent cell into two identical daughter cells.
In the process of mitosis, DNAis duplicated to form two sets. DNA is a molecule made up of nucleotides, andthe loose combination of multiple DNA are chromatins. The chromatin is shapedlike string, and is wrapped together by histones, a protein. When chromatinsare wrapped together, they can form chromosomes, a long thread of DNAconsisting of various genetic information.
One-half of a chromosome is a chromatin,and two chromatins form a chromosome when they are held together by acentromere. The objective of a cell undergoing mitosis is to produce anidentical cell made up of the same genetic information or DNA. Prior toundergoing mitosis, a cell must go through interphase. Interphase is the timein which organelles within the cell and DNA take the time to replicate andprepare for cell division. Towards the end of interphase, a cell has two setsof DNA an is prepared to divide. The process of mitosis now occurs where thecell is split into two cells, each with full sets of DNA.
The four main phasesof mitosis are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. With the startof prophase, the first stage of mitosis, the chromatins spin into completechromosomes. Centrioles, or organelles which will help produce spindle fibersto pull apart the chromosomes, begin to move to opposite directions in thecell. The spindle fibers created by these centrioles will migrate towards thecenter of the cell where the chromosomes are located.
The second stageof mitosis, metaphase, then begins to occur, where the spindle fibers attach tothe centromeres in the middle of the chromosomes, while the centrioles continueto stay on different sides of the cell. Followingmetaphase, anaphase takes place as the chromosomes break into chromatids, andthese chromatids are pulled away from each other. The spindle fibers breakapart and shorten due to the fact that the chromatids are being pulled apart. Telophase, the fourth stage of mitosis, occursnext. The membranes of each individual daughter cells start to take shape, whilethe chromosomes fall apart and form chromatin. The spindle fibers previously attachedto the centrosome falls apart.
Throughout theprocess of mitosis, the DNA within the cell has divided to form identicalcells. During mitosis, the cytoplasm, in this case the other material within acell, divides through a process called cytokinesis. Cytokinesis is commonly thefinal stage of the cell cycle, occurring after mitosis. In the process, thecytoplasm is divided amongst two cells.
Overall, theprocess of mitosis is one where DNA is duplicated, condensed, and transformed intotwo nuclei. Not all cells undergo the process at the same rate. Various bodycells take distinct amounts of time to duplicate into two identical daughtercells. Certain cells such as skin cells are duplicated within 2 weeks, whileliver cells can take up to 500 days to duplicate.