Mistrust the use of interpreters can increase the quality

Mistrust of health care
and perceived discrimination can also lead to health disparities. Discrimination
can be defined as a difference in treatment based on race, ethnicity or race
(Weech-Maldonado, Hall, Bryant, Jenkins & Elliott, 2012). Perceived
discrimination can lead to individuals postponing or foregoing medical
treatment. Individuals are also more likely to not take advantage of
preventative services as well as not adhere to provider recommendations and
treatments (Stepanikova & Oates, 2016). It is not uncommon for minorities
to have higher levels of mistrust of health care. In fact, studies have shown
that African American are more than twice more likely to believe that hospitals
have conducted harmful experiments on patients without consent (LaVeist, 2005).

            Provider attitudes is another factor that can also lead
to health disparities. In fact, research has shown that patient characteristics
such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity can have an impact on the
level of care that a patient receives (Kendrick, Nuccio, Leiferman &
Sauaia, 2015). Further, a study conducted in 2002 regarding patient
interactions based on race found that physicians consistently reported negative
attitudes towards African American patient compared to their Caucasian
counterparts. These differences in provider attitudes can affect a patient’s
rate of health service usage, including preventative care services (LaVeist,

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            A final factor that can lead to health disparities are
language barriers. Studies have shown a clear association between language
barriers and lower quality of care. In fact, individuals who are not English
speakers are more likely to misunderstand diagnosis, treatment plans, provider
recommendation and medication instructions (LaVeist, 2005). Further, limited
English-language patients often report having to use their family members as
interpreters. While the use of interpreters can increase the quality of care
received, interpreter encounters can reduce open communication and do not allow
for patient provider health information confidentially (Steinberg,
Valenzuela-Araujo, Zickafoose, Keiffer & DeCamp, 2016).

Health behaviors that lead to health

Health behavior can be defined as the knowledge, practices
and attitudes that stimulate the actions we take regarding health (LaVeist,
2005). There are at least three subcomponents of health behavior. These are
risk behavior, preventative behavior and illness behavior. To define, risk
behavior are the actions that a person may engage in that have the ability to
increase the likelihood of developing a disease or injury in the future.
Preventative behavior are the actions that individuals may engage in that have
the ability to reduce one’s chances of developing a disease or sustaining an injury
in future. Lastly, illness behavior refers to actions that individuals take
when faced with an illness (LaVeist, 2005).

Health behaviors may lead to health disparities and
inequities. Within the illness health behavior subcomponent, studies have shown
that racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to delay seeking care
compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Stigma associated with treatment of
certain diseases is among the most often cited reason for delaying care within
minority populations (LaVeist, 2005).  

Within the preventative behavior subcomponent, when
comparing inactivity levels within all races, it was found that inactivity
levels were higher for Hispanic men as well as black men. The high level of
inactivity could be due to increased crime rates within these communities which
could limit the time spent outside due to safety reasons (LaVeist, 2005). In
fact, a study found that in low socioeconomic neighborhoods, parental anxiety
was higher in regard to outside children activities, when compared to their
suburban counterparts (LaVeist & Isaac, 2013).  Higher levels of physical inactivity have been
found to increase one’s likelihood of obesity, chronic conditions, and higher
medical costs (Lindgren, Freedman, Engell, Fleming, Lim, Murray & Mokdad,