Majorchanges had been made in the 2013 released Diagnostic Statistical and Manualfor Mental Disorder 5th edition (DSM-5). Binge eating disorder (BED)is now being categorized as an eating disorder in DMS-5. In DMS-IV that waspublished in 1994, binge eating disorder was only listed in Appendix B and hadto be diagnosed with the non-specific “EDNOS” (Eating Disorder Not OtherwiseSpecified).
According to NEDA (NationalEating Disorder Association) over 1000 research papers have been published thatsupport the idea that BED is a specific diagnosis that has validity andconsistency (NEDA,2016). Although the changes include the feeding and eatingdisorders such as: bulimia, anorexia and binge eating disorder, I have chosento write about binge eating disorder (BED). BED has couple of key diagnostic features thatcan’t be ignored. These diagnostic features will be thoroughly explained in thefollowing paragraphs. Furthermore, I will discuss the role society plays in thisstressful eating disorder as well as the life threatening consequences on theindividual’s health. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) defined bingeeating disorder as a recurring episode of eating significantly more food in ashort period of time than a normal person would do in normal circumstances withepisode marked by feelings of lack of control. The risk and prognostic factorsare genetic and physiological.
Binge-eating disorder appears to run in thefamily, which may reflect addictive genetic influences (American Psychiatric Association,2013). TheBED diagnostic features are serious. They are life-threatening and can evenlead to death. The diagnostic features that are listed in DMS-5 are: The episodeof BED is recurrent and persistent. The patient eats much more rapidly untiluncomfortable full.
People who are diagnosed with BED tend to eat large amountof food even when not physically hungry .They eat alone out of embarrassment ofhow much one is eating. These individual with BED often shows sign and symptomsof depression, guilt and they are disgusted with one self. (APA, 2013) Althoughthe diagnosis of Bed differs from that of bulimia nervosa, they have therecurrent binge eating in common. Unlike individuals with bulimia, there is nopurging of the food in individuals with BED.
(American Psychiatric Association,2013). According to NEDA (National Eating Disorder Association), binge eatingdisorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder in the United States ofAmerica. It’s most common in women (3.5%) that are in their early adulthood andmen (2%) that are in their midlife. Binge eating is also seen in adolescence(up to 1.
6%).(NEDA,2016). Binge eating disorder is also culture-related. Itoccurs in most industrialized countries, including the United States, Canada,many European countries, Australia and New Zealand. In the US, it comparableappears in non-Latino White, Asians, Latinos and African Americans.(APA,2013) Society plays a big role in the eatingdisorders we see in young girls, boys and also adults. Society influences theway one prefer to look. From a very young age girls are being told that looksmatter and that they should look a certain way to be accepted by society.
Thediet commercials on TV are spending countless hours to tell viewers to loseweight and that thin is more beautiful. People with binge eating disorder, whoare overweight, are acutely aware of their body shape and appearance and beratetheir self after eating. Often enough overweight and obese people are beingportrait as lazy.
Thin and pumped up bodies are being portrait as successful. Theconstant images of thinness on TV and magazines can worsen their binge eating. Overand over again news papers and magazine expose the notion that losing weight bythe use of a certain diet plan is going to make us happier. Although those dietplans don’t work for many, yet our society continues to buy into the idea thatthey do. Recent studies indicated that social media, such as facebook alsoinfluence the risk of eating disorders.
According to a CNN report, in two recent studies,researchers at Florida State University explored whether eating disorders are linkedto social media. In the first research, 960college women completed a self-reported eating disorder screening assessment.They also answered a series of questions about their facebook use. A small butsignificant correlation was found between facebook use and disordered eating.
In the second study, 84 women from the first study were divided into twogroups. One group was instructed to use facebook as they typical would in 20minutes. The other group was told to research an ocelot, a rainforest cat, onWikipedia and YouTube. Unsurprisingly, the women who spent 20 minutes onfacebook reported greater body dissatisfaction than the ones that look at cuteCats. (Mysko, 2014). The negative influences that social media andsociety have on the eating habits on the most vulnerable (girls and women) on eatingdisorders (BED included) can be life threatening and also fatal.
AmericanPsychiatric Association (APA) has listed functional consequences ofBinge-Eating Disorders (BED) in the DSM-5. These include: social roleadjustment problems, impaired health-related quality of life and lifesatisfaction, increase medical morbidity and mortality, and associatedincreased health care utilization compared with body mass index (BMI)-matchedcontrol subject. It may also be associated with an increase risk for weightgain and the development of obesity (APA, 2013). Some of us eat too much at the Thanksgiving-,Christmas dinner table or at a party. But we lose that extra weight that wasgained in no time. People with BED has problem losing that extra weight that iscaused by BED. Individuals with BED overeat while feeling out of control andpowerless to stop. They lose confident in their ability to control the amountof food consumed.
This lack of control will have a profile impact on thepatient’s life such as: his/her school, career, and relationships with familyand friends. Co-occurring disorders such as depression, loneness, anxiety,bipolar and substance abuse can trigger more frequent and severe binge. Tryingto diet without professional assistance will worsen the binge eating. In thebook, A Guide To Ending Compulsive Eating,the author , who also suffered from thisdisorders for years , explains how she went on every diet she had heard of and read about. She spent 3 weeks losing 10 pound on Weigh Watcher, Tillman’s, Aitkin’s and acouple of other diet plans, just to gain it back in four days (Roth,1989). Unlikeindividuals with bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge-eating disordertypically do not show marked or sustained dietary restriction designed toinfluence body weight and dieting (APA,2013) .
Like all other eating disorder, BEDis a very serious medical disease. The overweight and obese patient can end upwith other health complications such as: high cholesterol, hypertension,diabetes and other heart diseases. These complications can be irreversible andcan lead to death.
According to the National Eating Disorder Association (NEDA),Crow and colleagues studied 1.885 individuals with anorexia nervosa, bulimiaand BED over 8 to 25 years. They used a computerized record linkage to the NationalDeath Index. It showed that the mortality rate of BED is higher than that ofanorexia and bulimia. The mortality rate of bulimia is 3.9%, anorexia is 4, 0% andBED is 5.2%. The reason for death includes suicide, substances abuse,starvation (individuals with anorexia) and “natural” death such as cancer.
(Kaye,2016) Although binge eating disorder is a veryserious and sometimes fatal, it’s also treatable. According to the DSM-5,binge-eating disorder also differs from bulimia nervosa in terms of response totreatment. Rates of improvement are consistent higher among individuals withbinge-eating disorder than those with bulimia nervosa (APA, 2013). People withBED should be encouraged to seek professional help. The reason for treatment ofBED is to reduce the binge eating and ultimately to lose weight. The treatmentwill help the BED patient to have control over his/her eating habits. Accordingto Mayo Clinic, treatments of BED include: Psychotherapy, medications, andbehavior weight-loss programs. The first psychotherapy is cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT), which teaches the patient how to deal with the underlying causes of BED.
Interpersonal psychotherapy is the second possible treatment for this disorder.The therapist focuses on the relationship with others. The goal is to improvethe interpersonal skills between family, friends and coworkers. The thirdpsychotherapy is the dialectical behavior therapy.
The patient will learn aboutbehavior skill, how to tolerate stress, emotion regulation and relationshipimprovement. BED is also treatable with anti-depressant (SSRI’s), andanticonvulsant topiramate. Behavior Weight-Loss programs may be very effectiveto the individual with BED. This kind of treatment is recommended only when thebinge eating is fully treated, because dieting without professional assistancemay trigger more binge eating. The Behavior Weight loss program also teacheshealthy eating habits and healthy nutrition. Patients should stick to the treatmentif they want help.
(Mayo Clinic, 2016) In Summary, the diagnostic features ofthis stressful eating disorder were discussed. We also saw how social media andsociety can influence one’s self esteem and worsen the binge-eating in the individual.The consequences of binge-eating are life threatening and can be fatal if theindividual doesn’t seek professional help in time. Although this disorder canbe harmful to the individual’s health or even causes death, this disorder canbe treated. There are many treatment centers all over the Unites States, includingMayo Clinic, where individuals with BED can get professional help.