LiteratureReviewMedium of InstructionEducationis the basic strength of any nation.
The role of education in the modern agehas been changed. Previously, it wasconsidered a tool for human development but today it plays a major role indevelopment of every field like politics, economics, social and human resources(Mahmood& Gondal, 2017). We can say it serves as the backbone to the countries who wish toprosper in all aspects. In order to have good education it is necessary to havea good medium of instruction (MOI). This medium helps the teachers toaccomplish their targets and nurture the minds of the youngsters to make themuseful citizens of the society (Muhammad, 2009).MOIis the language used by the teacher for teaching any content in any classroom.Language, in this way, plays central role in all teaching and learningprocesses because of being major means of knowledge and communication (Ahmed,2011, Mahmood & Gondal, 2017).
There are usually more than one languagesspoken and used in a country. Most of the times, the official language or someother main language, is not used as medium of instruction (Ahmad, Zarif &Tehseen, 2013). MOI has a significant importance in educational policy.It is made to make the nation united but it becomes a tool of politicalsubjugation of minorities.
There is diversity in the medium of instruction inPakistan. Elite and armed forces run educational institutes which use Englishas a medium of instruction. State educational institutes use Urdu as a mediumof instruction though the course books and medium of examination are Englishand Madrassas use Urdu and Arabic as a medium of examination (Rahman, 2010b).MOIhas always been a debatable issue in Pakistan because of the presence ofmultiple languages and cultural diversity (Farooqi, Islam & Hussain 2016).There are five native languages used here i.
e. Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraikiand Baluchi (Rahman, 1997). Urdu is on onehand language of minority and on the other hand it is also national language.English is used as a language of power and as official language.
Many local languages are also used as mediumof instruction in institutes along with the national language (Coleman, 2010). InMarch 2009, the Government of Punjab made a move by introducing English as themedium of instruction for the subjects of mathematics, science and computerscience in all Punjab’s public schools from Grades 1 to 12. Later in February2014 the policy was amended a bit and Urdu was reinstated as medium ofinstruction Grade 1 to 3 and from English has to start as medium of instructionfrom 4th grade. Theshift to EMI was primarily based on the desire to maximize the potential ofyoung people, helping them develop their skills and knowledge in anincreasingly competitive globalized economy. Research studies in many countrieshave indicated that a high level of English languageskills can lead to an increase in economic opportunities and income levels.GoP’s argument in support of the EMI policy is founded on the assumption thatteaching students in English from the primary level will facilitate a smoothertransition to secondary schooling, leading to higher levels of comprehensionand ‘use’ of subject knowledge. The teaching and mastery of Urdu (as well asPunjabi, and other vernacular languages) is of great importance, but at thesame time it is also clear that English is needed to enable young people todevelop the kind of skills which can open up opportunities to them for furtherstudy and for work. Accordingto Mahmood& Gondal (2017) the medium of instruction playskey role in the processes of teaching and learning.
It may play role ofconnection between teacher and the students however it can also become obstaclebetween them in some cases. They further assert that regional and nativelanguages play an important role for the socialization and development of anindividual. These languages are used in home and neighborhood and give identityto its users because they closely relate to their culture and socialtraditions. Farooqi,Islam & Hussain (2016) found out in their study that English as medium ofinstruction had negative effect on motivation of students for learning. Theysuggested that Urdu should be used as medium of instruction for secondary levelstudents. Shaheen & Tariq (2012)conducted a research in Punjab University to observe the effect of change inmedium of instruction on students. Their study revealed that medium ofinstruction is one of the factors that influence academic achievement ofstudents.
Other things that have effect on performance of the students aretheir level of satisfaction, their proficiency of English language and the rolethat the teachers play.Theliterature determines a number of significant EMI problems defending teachers, consistingof teachers’ dialect abilities, students’ effectiveness, appropriate methods,and insufficient information. Initially, teachers are known to experience linguisticproblems. Vinke et al.
(1998), for example, survey that EMI added to higherexpectations at the teaching abilities of content material lecturers’ in the Netherlands:the teachers employed slow presentation and less flexibility in working withsurprising incidents and different problems in language usage.Manypeople had complexity in conveying themselves efficiently, specifically in paraphrasing,checking for phrases, and improvement statements. Many of these factors potentiallyeffect in damaging results on students’ trying to learn, such as less contentprotection and expertise loss. Likewise, Smith (2004, as cited in Coleman,2006) recognizes 15 general complications that Western tertiary EMI programsare struggling with, for example, the demand to improve dialect skills for localstudents and associates and the resource of proficient English-speaking contentteachers. Shohamy (2012) echoes all these issues in the circumstance of Israel:”It is frequently the case that educational teachers will possess high knowledgein a single content areas , not the other language” (p. 203).Thefurther obstacle for EMI educators is a look for successful pedagogy. Wilkinson(2005) discovered that Dutch content lecturers had to spend more time usingEMI; the conversation evolved into “poorer” as a final result of theirparticular weaker ability to use the instructional language orally, whichclearly lowered “the quality of teaching” (n.
p.). His studies recommend thatEMI may lead to effective content material understanding the concepts ofinstructional methods are designed, more period is given, and more of the programis provided in EMI. Nevertheless, the appropriateness of ‘codes witching’ inEMI is still questionable. When conversation in English breaks down, teachersmay require it for approved the fact that the mother tongue can offer a substitutefor understanding the concepts. Kyeyune (2010), however, facts that this alternativeis pedagogically “incorrect” mainly because it breaks down “to assist in the developmentof learners’ educational literacies” (p.
179). Unsupportive proof forcodeswitching is likewise found in additional research (Ibrahim, 2001; Mohamed,2013; Shohamy, 2012). In reality, Ball and Lindsay (2012), in a recent analysiswith Spanish teachers, advise that linguistic and pedagogic competences? arerelated and that pedagogical proficiency is more important to assist instudents’ gaining knowledge. The qualified materials on EMI pedagogy doesindeed not give clear advice on the virtually all suitable teaching methods tomake up language problems.Researchin African and Asian parts of the world increase the problems to students’ languagecapabilities (Byun et al., 2011; Kyeyune, 2010; Huong, 2010; Tsuneyoshi, 2005Manh, 2012; ). Kyeyune(2010), for case in point, watching classroom interactions, reviews thedepressing conversation failures in Ugandan classrooms considering that ofstudents’ poor English effectiveness. He writes: “Teachers consequently believetheir learners to be smooth in the words when they are actually not” (p.
175). Sierra(2012a) and Doiz, Lasagabaster, and Ibrahim (2001) reducing the idea of students’ linguisticskills right into Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) andIntellectual Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), structured on Cummins'(1979) differentiation.Appropriately,even every time students’ social conversation is successful, they may possiblyhave difficulty with EMI. The absolute challenge leading to implementationaltroubles is limited resources (Dang et al., 2013; Huong, 2010; Manh, 2012).Baldauf, Kaplan, Kamwangamalu, and Bryant (2011), analyzing many Asiancountries’ language guidelines, determine the fact that “financing for typicalprogrammes, the training of teachers and cash for textbooks are allinsufficient” (p.
318).Inbrief, teachers face diverse difficulties in using EMI.