Literature ReviewDisabilityas a concept and the experience of people with disabilities has been heavilydiscussed by scholars. There is also a new ongoing literature on student withdisabilities. In order to discuss the experience of student with disabilitiesin Qatari Higher Education, it is required to engage with previous studies onstudent with disabilities in academic circles.
That is why, this chapter aims to present available literature onStudent with Disabilities in Higher Education. This chapter consists of fivesections. The first section,,,,,,,Defining Disability Manyscholars have been discussing that it is difficult to have a global definitionof disability.
( Linton 1998, Slater et al.194, Williams 1996, Zola 1994). Altman suggests that “there is no one definition;fits all circumstances because of extensive variety of the problem” (12?)(Handbookof Disability Studies, Altman,)Thus, disability has been defined differently bydifferent organizations. World Health Organization (WHO) defines disability as “anyrestriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform anactivity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being”(1980). According to WHO, “Disabilities isan umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participationrestrictions” (1980). The Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act of 2008(ADAAA) states” ‘disability’ with respect to an individual—(A) a physical ormental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activitiesof such individual;(B) a record of suchan impairment; or(C) being regarded ashaving such an impairment U.N.
Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for People withDisabilities presents disability The term “disability” summarizes a greatnumber of different functional limitations occurring in any population in anycountry of the world. People may be disabled by physical, intellectual orsensory impairment, medical conditions or mental illness. Such impairments,conditions or illnesses may be permanent or transitory in nature. (1994) Many scholars criticizethis medical model of disability and they suggest social model of disability. Snyder argues that disability ” no longer means acondition, an incapacity, or lack that belongs to the body, but rather aproduct of interactions between self, society, body, and the variety ofinteractions (from political economies to personal commitments) that theyengender” ( 2006).
Driedger alsodiscusses that there is a new attempt in Western European countries that”demanding the redefinition of disability from a personal, medical problem to apolitical one. (Driedger 1991). Similarly, De Jong and Finkelstein also see disability as’socially constructed problem ratherthan “problem of the individual’s ‘body’ and thus something to be treated byhealth and social care professionals” Watson, Nick, et al,2014)Moreover, Cameron in his book “Disability Studies aStudent’s Guide” argues that even though medical model defines disability as ” asa physical incapacity or abnormality”, a new model of disability ‘social model’was came into existence during 1970s. (2016) He discusses that in this model “Disability was reconceptualised here not as anindividual problem or as a personal trouble butas a social structural issue”(2016). He mentions that the first social model of disability appeared in the disability definition of Unionof the Physically Impaired against Segregation (UPIAS) (Cameron,2016)UPIAS definition as followswe define …disability as the disadvantage or restriction of activity caused by acontemporary social organization which takes no or little account of people who have physical impairments and thusexcludes them from participation in themainstream of social activities.(1976)This social model of thedisability has a vital role in inclusion of Student with Disabilities in highereducation.Student with Disabilities (SWD) in Higher EducationInternationally, there is a new trend inhigher education institutions to accommodate students with disabilities totheir education system . Wolanin andSteele claims that “Students with disabilities are the most recentmarginalized group to move toward equal opportunity in education.
” (2014). Many governments and internationalorganizations have been working on proving equal opportunities for the studentwith disabilities. The improvement forSWDs has started first in elementary and secondary education and currently alsois focusing on higher education in all around the world. (Wolain andStleele,2014) For, instance, the enrollment rate of SWD in US higher educationinstitutions in 2007-2008 is 10.9 and in2011-2012 is 11.
1 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2016)Even though the inclusionof SWD in elementary and secondary education strengthens their enrollment. Wolainand Stllee point out that higher education for SWD is different from elementaryand secondary education with SWD since last two both are mandatory “and no student with a disability maybe rejected” while “higher education is voluntary and rejects many aspirants”. (Wolain and Stleele,2014). Rothstein argues thathigher education institutions “only have an obligation to ensure thatqualified applicants and students with disabilities have access to thecollege’s program, and are provided necessary academic adjustments, includingauxiliary aids and services.” (2003) However, SWD are responsibility to submit themselvesto the university in order to obtain their demands as well as to adapt to theuniversity and with their fellow students.
That is to say ” The burden is on the student to make known thedisability and to provide and pay for appropriate documentation in a timelymanner”.( Rothstein,2003)