Let’s for collecting information using sensors or data given

Let’s first see what is computing, in general it can define as any goal-centered activity
need or creating computers. So it includes designing and developing software/hardware
systems for a goal, configuration and managing diverse kind of information or
doing scientific studies using computers.

Computing can be conventional or intelligent.
Simply we can say a conventional computing is based on particular sets of
instruction (algorithm) to solve given problem and it can’t solve any problem
for which it haven’t instructions. Whereas intelligence computing usually refers to the ability of the computer (machine) to
learn a definite task or solve a problem from data or trials and it can make
new algorithm to solve new problems.

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An intelligent system first
observe its environment for collecting information using sensors or data given
to it then plan how it will execute to solve the problem in best way and
finally it learn and update its information from its mistake in solving problem
for next solution. For example chess played by computer, in this it have
learned that much now that it can beat any human in chess and all this is
learned by improving its moves from preceding mistakes. So to see if the given solution is intelligent or not all
we need to check is if it can learn from its previous mistake to solve new
problem on its on. If it repeat the same mistake again and again then it is not

Also for
checking if the system is AI or not we have Turing tests but since now a day it
can easily be fooled we have some new methods to check AI, for example Winograd
Schema Challenge. In this it presents a
number of multiple choice questions within specific format like:

     Q: The trophy
would not fit in the brown suitcase because it was too big (small). What was
too big (small)? ( form https://io9.gizmodo.com/8-possible-alternatives-to-the-turing-test-1697983985)

Answer 0: the trophy

Answer 1: the suitcase

The answers to these questions seem easy
for human.  But for answering this correctly requires skills that remain vague
for computers, such as spatial and interpersonal reasoning or common sense.


 Agent is a computer program that executes various
actions autonomously and continuously on behalf of an individual or an
organization. For example, an agent may archive numerous computer files or
retrieve electronic messages on a systematic schedule. There are many
types of agents, two of them are utility based agent and learning agent. The utility based agents are used for achieving a
goal and also to determine the degree of how efficiently our goal is completed. Whereas learning
agent has a performance component that decides which actions to take and a
learning component that can change the performance component to be more effective
as the agents learns. For example a car which is a utility agent drive
by a human and then driverless car which uses learning agent and it drive its
own which doesn’t require any human help but this is still in experiment phase.