L2 reading comprehension in French. The focus of more

L2 VocabularyLearning via Video and PicturesPresenting anindividual lexical item simultaneously via multiple modes is one of the keyissues in L2 vocabulary acquisition.

Also multimodal glosses (within a computerprogram) have some studies of the efficacy on vocabulary acquisition. Inaddition to traditional definitions of words, it is possible to providedifferent types of information with multimedia applications, such as picturesand videos.The effects ofvideo and pictures on L2 vocabulary learning especially within multimediaenvironments have not been well explored. However, a wide research attentionhas been assigned to the effect of visual information on comprehending textsand learning other skills.There are generalobservations about the literature existing in teaching new vocabulary with theuse of video and pictures. It is important that selected pictures and videosegments depict meanings precisely and do not contain too much information.

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Inother words, they should be simple illustrations.  The research did not compare the effects ofvideos and pictures on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Both seemed more effectivethan other modes of presentation, particularly audio. This is simply becausestudents can visualize what the word means and relate the words to actualobjects. Omaggio (1979)conducted the first empirical study on the impact of pictures on readingcomprehension with beginning college French students. She found that picturesproduced a significant improvement in reading comprehension in French.

Thefocus of more recent research is narrowed to include studies on the effects ofvisual imagery on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Oxford and Crookall (1990) statedthat most learners are capable of associating new information to concepts inmemory by means of meaningful visual images that make learning more efficient (Ina critical analysis of L2 vocabulary learning techniques). Visual imagery isknown to help learners collect information more efficiently than they could ifusing just words alone. Moreover, since many parts of the brain is consisted ofthe pictorial-verbal combination, it provides greater cognitive power (p. 17).A study bySnyder and Colon (1988) investigated the influence of both audio and visualaids on facilitating second language acquisition. Two groups were taught for 7weeks under two different conditions. One was exposed to a standard curriculumwith audio-visuals limited to overhead transparencies, audiotapes withaccompanying fill-in pictures, and slides.

The other group was exposed to acurriculum enriched with more audio-visual aids, such as additional overheadtransparencies, audio tapes and slides, as well as one bulletin board forreviewing material, and another for students to bring in materials from home,pictures from magazines, cut-out dolls to identify and reinforce names forparts of the body, and picture flash cards. After both covered groups aretested on the material, it was found that the group provided with additionalaudio-visual aids performed significantly better invocabulary retention.Kost, Foss, andLenzini (1999) carried out a study comparing the effects of pictorial andtextual glosses on incidental vocabulary growth for foreign language learners.

Participants were asked to read a passage under one of three glossingconditions: textual gloss alone, pictorial gloss alone, and text combined withpictures. It was better to provide tests of 14 words of both production andrecognition to see the performance of those who were allowed to use acombination of text and picture. The theoretical explanation for such results,the authors argue, is that processing information requires different degrees ofcognitive effort. The two different representations allow plotting of thepicture into one mental model and thereby provide a “stronger bond” than theplotting of the words (p. 94).A research hasbeen done on the efficacy of video in the domain of L2 vocabulary acquisition.Neuman and Koskinen (1992) state that captioned video with sound provides asemantically enriched context where the visual and the audio lend meaning tothe printed words on the screen. Learning vocabulary is been compared by thisstudy through watching television, through reading and listening to a document,and through listening alone.

Their results indicated that words were learnedand retained best from watching television.Comparinglistening to a dialogue with and without visual aids, Duquette and Painchaud(1996) intended to determine which would better allow learners to guess themeaning of new words. Participants listened to a dialogue on the subject ofdriving a car under two conditions. Under the first condition, they listened toa dialogue while a videotape played. Then they listened to the same dialoguewith only an audiotapeunder the second condition, Results indicated that thelearners in the video group made gains on 8 unfamiliar words out of a total of40, whereas the audio- only group learned only 3.

The authors speculated thatthe “match between prominent visual cues and linguistic ones allows for theinference of unfamiliar words” (p. 158).The only studythat undertook to compare the effect of video clips and static pictures oncomprehension and retention of a written passage was carried out by Hanley,Herron, and Cole (1995). Their study showed that a video clip is a moreeffective organizer than a picture.

Twenty-eight college students of French,divided into two groups, took part in the study. Group One was shown a shortvideo clip with French narration. Group Two was presented the same narrativewith the teacher reading it aloud while presenting four still pictures of thecontext.

The students in Group One performed significantly better on acomprehension and retention test than those in Group Two.Video aiding in”conceptualizing language,” (linking language form to meaning),the authorscontended that the video clip proved to be more effective in aidingcomprehension and retention (p. 63).Using ofmultimedia to enhance L2 vocabulary acquisition is supported by the studiesaltogether because it is a single interactive presentation environment fordiverse instructional resources which includes printed texts, photographs,slides, and dynamic audio/video.Multimedia instructionhas varied andinteractive nature which makes reading, listening, and speaking engaging andenjoyable. Additionally, the immediacy of access and student independence makelearning more efficient and effective.

 Finally, the combination of media enhances learning because words aredually coded resulting in referential connections that are constructed betweenthe verbal and visual systems.ReferencesDuquette, L.,&Painchaud, G. (1996). A Comparison of vocabulary acquisition in audio andvideo contexts.

The Canadian Modern Language Review, 54(1) 143-172.Hanley, J.,Herron, C., & Cole, S. (1995). Using video as advance organizer to awritten passage in the FLES classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 79(1),57-66.

Kost, C., Foss,P., &Lenzini, J. (1999). Textual and pictorial gloss: Effectiveness onincidental vocabulary growth when reading in a foreign language.

ForeignLanguage Annals, 32(1), 89-113.Neuman, B.,&Koskinen, P. (1992). Captioned television as comprehensible input: Effectsof incidental word learning from context for language minority students.

Reading Research Quarterly, 27(1), 95-106.Omaggio, C.(1979).

Picture and second language comprehension: Do they help? ForeignLanguage Annals, 12(2), 107-116.Oxfored, R.,&Crookall, D.

(1990). Vocabulary learning: “A critical Analysis oftechniques.” TESL Canada Journal 7(2), 9-30.Snyder, H.

,& Colon, I. (1988). Foreign language acquisition and audio-visualaids.  Foreign Language Annals, 21(4),343-384.