KOREAN WAR (1950-1953) The Korean War was a civil war that took place betweenNorth Korea and South Korea in 1950-1953. This conflict, which broke out in theearly years of the Cold War, gained an international dimension, first with the participationof the United States and its allies and then the People’s Republic of China. Atthe end of the Korean War, the division of Korea continued and the hostility ofthe two governments to each other was inherited today. The war continued withthe mutual attacks of the parties, but they did not excel each other.
TheKorean War, in 2007, protected the ruling in writing with the agreement signedbetween North Korea (Soviet Russia and People’s Republic of China) and SouthKorea (US / UN alliance).Korea, which is bending up from epidemic diseases beforethe war, was also used as a pawn in the last century and the economicdevelopment of the country has come to a halt. After defeating the Russian tsarin 1905, Japan invaded Korea, which had a strategic position in the region, andwanted to infiltrate China.Having been defeated by the World War II, Japan had toleave Korea, one of the territories in its possession, to the US and SovietRussia. According to the agreement signed between America and Soviet Russia inMay 1945, after the end of the war, It has been decided that the UnitedKingdom, America, Russia and China should be protected under joint custody. Butwhen Soviet Russia decided to participate in the far east war at the PotsdamConference in July 1945, the territory north of 38th latitude in Korea wasgiven to the Soviets and North Korea was included in the war. The twogovernments, after establishing separate governments in Korea, withdraw theirtroops from the region; a pro-Soviet government in the north and another pro-USgovernment in the south, and internal conflicts became inevitable. The Sovietgovernment, which did not immediately obey the war decision, declared war onthe Japanese after the two atomic bombs that America had thrown into Japan andinvaded Korea by inserting the northernmost of the 38th latitude.
Despite all of the initiatives of the United Nations, theUnited States has made another government under its tutelage in the South ofKorea with a decision that the United States could not unite. Korea had greatgeopolitical significance in its great name in order to be able to cross theAsian continent, which is why large states have tried to protect theirinterests over Korea in order to gain a geopolitical advantage. Soviet Russia hasbegun making plans to throw America out of Korea first and then out of Japanafter Soviet Russia has taken control of China, although both Japan and SouthKorea are in advantageous position as a military presence. For these reasons,the Moscow government issued an order to invade the South Korean borders fromthe North Korean forces on June 25, 1950.The US government has taken action on North Korea’smilitary intervention against South Korea and occupation of the 38th boundarybetween them. According to US President Truman, this operation was a product ofa possible Soviet-Chinese deal. The US, cautious about it, first ordered the5-star general “Douglas MacArthur,” the commander of Japanesemilitary units, to make military aid to South Korea. Immediately following thisincident, the United States, which had applied to the UN Security Council,submitted a recommendation that South Korea should be helped, and this proposalwas accepted by nine positive votes against a negative vote belonging toYugoslavia.
There was also no veto power because Soviet Russia, who protestedagainst the participation of the People’s Republic of China in the vote, didnot participate in the vote. In addition, the security council has reportedthat North Korea should condemn the aggressive stance and withdraw its troopsfrom the 38th latitude. UN troops was formed from Turkey, USA, UK, New Zealand,Belgium, the Philippines, Canada, Luxembourg, Greece, Ethiopia, the Union ofSouth Africa, the Netherlands, the Colombian military.
North Korea, which failed to comply with the decision ofthe Security Council, continued its progress to Seoul by not withdrawing itstroops. Upon this; The US, sending North Korea’s 8th line, which is in responseto this attitude, to the Taiwan islands; has taken measures to ensure thesafety of the island in a possible South Korean defeat. On the same day, theSecurity Council decided to draft the resolution on the protection of SouthKorea and was widely accepted. With the decision taken by the Security Council,the UN has sent troops to South Korea, and North Korea has been defeated andhas begun to retreat to the 38th latitude. However, the troops occupied NorthKorea and decided to unify the two governments, occupying the northern regionto the Chinese border.The Chinese government wanted to take Taiwan islands withthe nationalistic state in mind. But this was unlikely with a possibleUS-Korean allies government.
For this reason, the People’s Republic of China,actively involved in the war in the ranks of North Korea with the 38th latitudeof the UN forces, is actively supporting North Korea. On October 24, 1950, USAdmiral Douglas MacArthur, who reported that North Korea would be occupied bythe last offensive, was a development that did not add up. Hundreds ofthousands of volunteers from the People’s Republic of China have crossed theYalu River into Korea and infiltrated the positions of the US / UN forces,giving them heavy losses. What is strange is that the Chinese People’s Armymilitia, consisting of these volunteers, have forced the UN to stop itsprogress and retreat. In January 1951, US President Truman called for a specialwarrant of $ 50 billion for the “Korean War” and added 50% to Koreanmilitary units, both as ammunition and soldier.Chinese People’s Army troops have started to occupy thesouthern region by spraying UN forces southward. However, the counterattackagainst the UN forces was fixed along the latitude 38th latitude of the warfront.
By the way, General Douglas MacArthur, when he did not listen to thepresident’s order and wanted to move to the Chinese border, the bailiff wasdispatched immediately from the post. The main event that led to the withdrawalof the general from duty; The attacks on the border with the United Nations forceshave been inconclusive, resulting in the general being removed from his mandateto present Manchuria with an atomic bombing. After this, when the units in thefield of battle can not provide superiority to each other, they havenecessarily started to make peace negotiations. However, The US, Soviet Russiaand Chinese governments have been careful not to move the war out of the Koreanborders. Because a possible wrongful operation could lead to a general war. Thenegotiations, which began in April 1951, were concluded only in July 1953 andthe Panmunjom Agreement was signed.When the Korean War concluded with the treaty, North Koreabecame the buffer zone between China and the Western bloc. When the Korean warended, the warfare became very heavy.
3 million people lost their lives inbattle. During the war, 56,000 US soldiers, 600,000 Korean soldiers, 500,000Chinese soldiers and 1.5 million communists were killed. This war has taughtthat America should not have much confidence in the atomic power. Submitting tothe alliance of North Korea, China and Soviets, the US has taken a decisiontogether with other states in Europe to create close combat and qualifiedmilitary units.
To participate in the Korean War where soldiers from all UNmember states who have been participation from Turkey. 241 Turkish Regiments of5,090 seats, including 259 officers under the command of “Brigadier TahsinYaz?c?”, 18 military officers, 4 civil servants, 395 non-commissionedofficers, 4414 officers and soldiers participated in UN troops in Korea, movingfrom Iskenderun port of Hatay on 17 September 1950. TheTurkish regiments, which achieved great success in the wars they participatedin, gave 721 martyrs and 2000 soldiers were wounded.
The treaty that ended the Korean war was begun to bediscussed and negotiations lasted two years when they understood that theparties would not be superior to each other. The parties continued to fight inthe negotiation process. The Soviet leader Stalin died in March 1953, thestruggle for power worn the country, and finally he was willing to accept theSoviet Russia deal. With the signing of the Panmunjom treaty, the 38th latitudebetween North and South Korea has been accepted as the border again. SovietRussia understands that even if there are not many changes in boundaries andconditions, he will not be able to throw America from Korea. SOURCES http://www.tarihiolaylar.com/tarihi-olaylar/kore-savasi-77http://www.history.com/topics/korean-war