KISII UNIVERSITY FACULTYOF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYDEPARTMENTOF COMPUTING SCIENCEPROPOSALBYALBERTOCHIENG OKWANGALAREGNO: IN16/20224/14PROGRAMME: SOFTWARE ENGINEERINGUNIT: SPECIAL TOPIC IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERINGUNITCODE: SOEN 414 TITLE:DIGITAL LEARNING THIS TERM PAPER IS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS OFTHE AWARD OF BACHELORS OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN KISIIUNIVERSITY Table of abbreviations E-learning- electroniclearningOER- openeducational resourcesDPL –Digital Programme Learning DECLARATIONI do hereby declare that this TermPaper is original and has not been published or submitted for any other degreeaward to any other University before.
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Student: Albert Ochieng Okwangala Table of Contents 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 2.0 METHODOLOGY 2 2.1 Research design 2 2.2 Case Study 3 2.2.1 Availability of ICT 4 2.
2.2 Usability of ICT 4 2.2.3 Knowledge of ICT 4 2.2.4 Effectiveness of ICT 4 2.3 Data Analysis 4 3.
0 LITERATURE REVIEW 5 4.0 FINDS AND OBSERVATIONS 6 4.1 Digital learning impacts on the student 6 4.2 Digital learning impacts on the education sector 7 4.3 Research design 9 5.
0 RECOMMENDATIONS 10 1.0 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Itis clear that technology is becoming an integral part of our everyday activityand that’s why you find it integrated into all aspects of our lives. From thehealth sector, economic sector, social sector, education sector etc. but doesthis technology impact as positively. Back then in memorial students used tolearn using paper and pencil while interacting with other students andteachers/lecturers. This method of learning has seen my people becoming greatemployees in their line of profession and reaching greater heights in terms oftheir education levels. However, with the evolving technology in the educationsector, new ways of learning have been introduced.
A good example is Digitallearning which I will be exploited to analyze its advantages and disadvantages. Firstand for most, we need to understand the definition of digital learning as it issometimes confused by e-learning. As per the Wikipedia, “Digital learning isany type of learning that is facilitated by technology or by institutionalpractices that makes effective use of technology. It encompasses theapplication of a wide spectrum of practices including: blending and virtuallearning, adaptive learning, badging and gamification, blended learning,classroom technologies, e-textbooks, learning analytics, learning objects,personalized learning, online learning (or e-learning), open educationalresources(OERs), technology-enhanced teaching and learning, virtual realityetc.”Sincethe mid-1990s, many education policymakers have promoted widespread access tothe Internet in schools. Overthe same period, access to the Internet has been expanding in locations outsideof school.
One of the most common activities that youth perform online isschoolwork. According to a September 2001 study by thePew Internet & American Life Project:Nearlyevery online teen (94% of 12 to 17-year-olds who report using the Internet) hasused the Internet for school research;71%used the Internet as the major source for their most recent school project;58%have used a Web site set up by the school or a class;34%have downloaded a study aid; and17%have created a Web page for a school project.Digitallearning is meant to enhance the learning experience rather than replacetraditional methods all together but are the digital tools used in e-learningmaking us more or less productive at school and work? This will be one of myresearch points apart from also exploring how digital learning has or is goingto change schools and the education sector. 2.
0CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 2.1 ResearchdesignInorder to get a quantitative and a qualitative research, I have used a journaland online materials as meanings of carrying out my research in an attempt ofgetting a comprehensive statistics on how digital learning is impacting our wayof studies as well as the education sector.Along time ago; like 15years or so, smartphones were beginning to coverage,doing away with the need for paper addresses and enabling new connectivity. Digital learning today is wheresmartphones were a decade ago but it’s taking hold; at least that iswhat it looks like in most third world countries as compared to most firstworld countries. As a study case, I will be evaluating the impacts of digitallearning in the United States as well as in Kenya.In the United States statics show that thirty states offer fully onlineschools that grant degrees. There are approximately 315,000 students enrolledin this type of digital school.
This represents about half of one percent ofthe overall primary and secondary school population. But, the number ofstudents enrolled in online schools is growing rapidly. This past school yearenrollment increased by 6.
2 percent. In addition, virtual schools, whichprovide supplementary course offerings, have about 740,000-course enrollmentsin the 2015-2016 school year. Even though digital schools have many enrollmentsin the state, some states have put in policies to help the growth of digitallearning, for example, North Carolina created the position of “chiefacademic and digital learning officer” to administer the state’s onlinelearning programs. However, some other states that have inhibited the growth ofdigital learning. For example, currently, twenty states have laws banning theenrollment of students in digital schools. Concentrating on the states thatoffer and support digital learning, a report done by Gerard L. Danford showsthat The U.S.
is theundisputed leader in digital (online and distance) higher education. 5.8million Students are taking at least one digital course, and some 2.7 millionhigher education students are studying exclusively via digital.
Furthermore,growth in digital learning continues, even as higher education enrollmentsoverall are declining 1, 2, 3. What can European higher educationinstitutions learn from this U.S.
experience? In this research the authorfocuses on; the drivers of growth in digital learning, impact on learningoutcomes, and institutional costs.InKenya, the case is different as that of the United States. A program known as the Digital Learningprogramme (DLP) was initiated by the Government of Kenya in 2013. The programmewas put in place to integrate the use of technologies in learning. Thisprogramme was put in place to deliver 1.2 million devices between 2013 and 2016but up to date only 11500 devices have been delivered in lower primary schoolsbut the government is working towards expanding the DLP to cover up to thesecond stage of its education sector. However, apart from the DPL making aneffort to introduce and implement the digital learning, other organizations andinstitutions are on the verge of fully adopting digital learning practices. Agood example is The Kenyatta University School of Virtual and Open Learning thatseeks to provide learning opportunities to students who are unable to take upfull-time on-campus programmes.
2.2 CaseStudy Thereis a clear distinction on the comparison between the two countries above asdigital learning has already been implemented In the United States but inKenya, it is facings its genesis. For this reason, I will be evaluating theUnited State digital learning evolution to get a clear outcome on whether thedigital learning experience has made more or less productivity at school andwork and its impact to the education sector.Aresearch done in the USA shows that the impact made in the education sector canonly be measured using the following variable which includes: ü Availability of ICTü Usage of ICTü Knowledge of ICTü Effectiveness of ICTThisvariable was researched upon by asking different universities in differentstates on the following questions as per the variable: 2.2.
1Availability of ICTü Is thereany available IT equipment in the university?ü Isinternet connectivity available anytime you are in the computer laboratory?ü Is thereany available multimedia device when you are in the lecture rooms?ü How manydigital libraries are there in that state? 2.2.2Usability of ICTThisvariable exploits and tries to find out how the students can use newly settechnologies in studying. The following questions were used to evaluate thisvariable ü Is thereany usage of latest technology in the university?ü Howfrequently do students use multimedia devices in lecture rather thanblack/whiteboards?ü Howfrequently do students use the internet in researching about their assignmentsand school projects rather than books in the library?2.2.3 Knowledge of ICTThisvariable helps us understand how knowledgeable are students regarding the useof ICT and how has it been beneficial to them.ü How doesICT functions provide information to operate different multimedia devices?ü How isthe ICT knowledge helpful at a professional level?2.
2.4 Effectiveness of ICTTo evaluate howthe effectiveness of ICT has impacted the education sector. The followingquestions were asked.ü Does theICT knowledge improve the learning skills of students?ü How hasthe intent enhanced your way of learning and researching?ü How hasICT enhanced education planning?2.3 DataAnalysisThemajor finding of this research establishes that availability and usage of ICTare very crucial to enhance the educational sector and efficiency of students.This shows that the availability of ICT is beneficial to the students as itenhances their learning experience and helps them prepare a complete andcomprehensive report on their assignments and projects. These findings implythat the more the usage and availability of ICT in a university, the moreefficient student will be in terms of their profession.
All the heads ofuniversities were in agreement that vast knowledge provided by ICT is helpfulin enhancing the efficiency level in the education sector. 3.0CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW Thisis the era of technology, hence, it is being used in every sector of our livesand Educations is no exception. Digital learning is not exactly a new conceptbut is also neither a very old one. It is basically any type of learning thatis facilitated by technology or by institutional practices that makes effectiveuse of technology. It is a deeper learning experience as the student makes theeffort of understanding the concepts himself.Ina particular private school in Saudi Arabia, “an eight-year-old girl calculatesmultiplication tables using an interactive program that feeds her increasinglydifficult questions as she demonstrates higher levels of achievement. Acrossthe hall, a ten-year-old boy prepares a short video explaining how automobileairbags work.
” With such a rich environment of technological devices suchas laptops and tablets, it’s hard to believe that just one year earlier thesestudents relied solely on pencils, textbooks, and teacher lectures.Ashocking research done by world economic forum shows that 65% of the childrenentering primary schools will find themselves in an occupation that today don’texist. It also shows that by 2020, an estimation of about 1.5 million digitizedjobs across the globe. This means that truly technology is playing in everyaspect of our lives and it is here to stay. However, as beneficial as it is, italso comes with some cons. A number of things make its implementation reallyhard such as its expensiveness, but apart from that social media applicationshave really caused a major distraction to our young associates. Social media ismostly used as a tool to size up one’s own accomplishments against others whichtends to have a lot of negative impacts on the young boys and girls.
Thisshould not be the case, social media is an advantageous platform where one canlearn and share educational content apart from extending your social status.These Social and recreational media should mostly be used as a site of learning.Apart from that, it has also led to the Lack of face-to-face interactions withthe teachers and classmates, of which in my opinion is not a healthy move. Aresearch done by a company known as love to know, shows that people who tend tospend a lot of time in social media sites tend to have health issues such headand stomachache, hence making them less productive in work and school . Withthis kind of distraction eradicated completely, digital learning can be amassive tool in learning environments. 4.
0CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND OBSERVATIONS 4.1 Digital learningimpacts on the student. Thefollowing are some of the positive impacts on the student I have compiled from different online materials:ü Informal patterns of learning: Digitallearning helps a student to learn in a style that best suits him. For example,if he is unable to understand through theory, he can use interactive programsto get a better understanding of the concept.ü Learning anytime and anyplace: Thanksto the internet and the modern technology, students can now access studymaterial on their laptops at any time and from anywhere.
As a result, thestudents are not restricted to learning only during the school hours.ü Performance Improvements: Researchhas shown that students who have access to digital learning and who make gooduse of it, tend to perform well in their papers.ü Improving concepts: Blendedlearning tools are very helpful in making the concept understandable. Studentsare better able to comprehend problems.ü Improves creativity: Notall students are able to perform well by solely relying on course books. Forthem, it is important to utilize their creative side. For this matter, digitallearning is the best option.
ü Increased Interactivity: Itis true that interactive programs and strategies are engaging for students.They are able to develop an interest in them, helping them to learn voluntarilyand more effectively.Accordingto Jim Shelton, deputy secretary at the US Department ofEducation, the benefits of adding digital educational tools to curriculumextend far beyond the classroom. In an interviewdone by The Aspen Institute, Jim Shelton offered a deeper dive into theadvantages of introducing digital learning. He said that “When students haveaccess to powerful mobile devices and digital resources that are continuallyupdated, they realize that learning doesn’t stop with the last bell of theschool day. They become accustomed to learning being an integral part of allaspects of their lives, which establishes ongoing learning habits lasting longafter graduation. In addition, technology empowers students to takecontrol of their own learning. By providing students with tools to engage andcreate, as well as monitor their own progress, students are put in the driver’sseat and become owners of the learning process.
” Other than having a wide load ofbenefits the digital learning platform contains some negative impacts on the student as well. ü Has it many Distractions? DigitalLearning tools can sometimes be a distraction to students. Many students end upspending a lot of time in these tools and forget about their lecture books andclasswork’s hence the end up wasting a lot of their time.
Some of these toolsare laptops connected to the internet which becomes a problem to students thatare easily distracted by the social media.ü It’s expensive to implement digitallearning: Buying digital learning tools e.g. Laptops,smartphones, etc. are quite expensive and therefore cannot be afforded byeveryone. More so by students leaving in third world countries.
ü Missing out on the social aspect of learning: Lack offace-to-face interactions with the teachers and classmates is not a healthymove. It is important to remember that not all education can be receivedthrough digital learning. Class lectures and discussions are important learningprocesses. The bond between a teacher and pupil is very important for apositive learning experience.
4.2 Digital learning impacts on the Education sector Theuse of information and communication technologies in the education sector playsan important role in providing innovation to the whole learning process in theUnited States. Thepotential of ICT impact in education is clear but only when implementedcorrectly, laptops and computers, for example, can allow students to learn attheir own speed and help children develop important digital skills and computerknow-how. But some huge challenges, such as high costs of these devices,increased burdens on parents and teachers. However, much higher educationinstitution has taken up the challenge and are putting in their best inimplement digital learning because of the following reasons:ü Withmany more new students expected to enroll in universities in the near future, digitizationallows higher education to be more scalable and more affordable.ü Many Universitiesand colleges are not only used by students who have graduated from secondaryeducation but also by full-time workers, single parents, and careerchangers—convenient access to higher education at various stages of their liveshence bring into account the functionality of flexibility.
ü Digitaleducation is being enhanced by new features in mobile devices, cloud deliverysystems, video streaming and other broadband-intensive applications, andlearning management systems.ü Today’sstudents are digital natives who are used to getting want they want at the timeand location they want to get it.”Isdistraction just another meaningless message to keep you from paying attentionto the issues that are important?” Oneof the observations I’ve made in this research is that the only tool that makesmany students and even employees in many organizations be lazy and lackinnovation in whatever they are doing is social media. Below I have outlinedthe negative impacts of social media.4.3 Negative Impacts of social media onstudents and employees 1.Many students depend solely on the accessibility of information on social mediaspecifically and different websites in general to provide solutions forwhichever situations they may be facing, may it be assignments, projects, lifehacks etc.
This means that their focus on learning and retaining information isreduced significantly.2.Many students and employees tend to attempt to multi-task, visiting socialmedia sites while studying or working, their ability to concentrate on the taskat hand is significantly reduced by the distractions that are brought about byYouTube, Facebook or Twitter. At the end, this reduces their performance inschool and work. 3.The more time students and employees spend on social sites, the more theybecame antisocial in terms of interacting with other people physically.
Students who spend a great deal of time on social networking are less able toeffectively communicate in person.4.The fast growth of social media and the pace at which information is publishedhas created a relaxing attitude towards proper spelling and proper constructionof sentences. This has significantly made many students lazy in writing, asthey depend so much on a computer with spell checking features.5.The anonymity brought by the internet has made many students careless inpublishing comments or status on these social network sites which bringsnegative consequences.
For example, some of the employers tend to researchabout a particular interviewee through his social media accounts before givingthem a job. CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATIONS Itis no doubt that technology is having a massive impact in the education sectorand has become an essential and effective tool for the success of manystudents. But this is only possible when implemented correctly. One of the mosteffective ways of implementing digital learning is by the use of a conceptknown as blended learning introduce by education Technology Company.
Blendedlearning is the use of technology to combine in-class and out-class learning byinfusing tradition learning with technology. Blended learning has redefined therole of teaches and lecture by offering them a more flexible option dependingon the capabilities of the student. This intern enables teachers to focus onmaking students understand a particular concept rather than worrying with themode of delivering the concept itself.Theblended method of learning enables college staff with the ability to be able tocome up with flipped activities which learners can complete pre- andpost-lesson to gain the understanding of topics.
These are very advantageous asit allows the time in traditional classrooms to focus on extending the students’knowledge and to enable them in reaching the advanced levels of learning suchas analyzing and evaluating.Restrictingthe access of social media sites in multimedia devices such as computers andlaptops in offices and schools is an effective way of ensuring that employeesand students are not distracted. Hence, their concentration is fully in whatthey are doing. This will make them productive and innovative in their line ofwork and in schoolsGovernmentsand companies from private sectors from different countries should try as muchas possible to fund and put in place policies that enable and help in theimplementation of digital learning in schools, so as to improve the educationsector. The government should also put in place measure to ensure theavailability and usability of ICT infrastructures are accessible to students soas to facilitate digital learning. With many more new studentsexpected to enroll in universities in the near future, digitization allowshigher education to be more scalable and more affordable.
By doing so, studentswill be able to learn from anywhere in this world in any university throughdifferent online platforms such as teleconferencing etc. REFERENCES https://www.brookings.edu/blog/techtank/2014/12/15/how-big-is-digital-education-in-the-united-states-an-end-of-year-review/DIGITAL LEARNINGIN HIGHER EDUCATION ‘Lessons From America’ GerardL. Danford, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Finland pdfhttp://icta.
theodysseyonline.com/the-impact-of-digital-technology-on-students-learning-abilityhttp://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/edutechUsage and Impact of ICT inEducation Sector. A Study of Pakistan by M.
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