Joshua: prototype of a stored program computer, known as

          Joshua: What is a CPU?: CPU = Central Processing Unit CPU = The brain of the computer Interprets and Executes most of the commands from the computer’s hardware and softwareMany devices utilise CPU’sTablets LaptopsSmartphonesVideo Game ConsolesFlat-Screen TVs Most Popular CPU manufacturers Intel (Based in Santa Clara, CA)AMD (Advanced Micro Devices, Inc) (Based in Sunnyvale, CA)Other CPU manufacturersApple NvidiaQualcommCommon names for a CPU ProcessorMicroprocessorComputer ProcessorCentral  Processor “The brains of the computer” CPU’s Design Fairly small and square, with many metallic connectors on the undersideMost CPUs use metallic  connectors Older models use pins that are very fragile and are damaged easilyBe very careful when handling and when installing CPU cooling CPU’s during use created a lot of heat Heatsinks and fans are placed on top of the CPU to dissipate heatThere are more options for cooling a CPU Water CoolingPhase change units Clock SpeedThe number of  instructions a CPU can process in a second Measured in gigahertz (GHz)3Ghz of clock speed can process 3 billion instructions a second Nick: The history of the CPUThe first computers were known as fixed program computers and required manual rewiring when a new task was introduced. The first prototype of a stored program computer, known as the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine was seen running its first program in 1949.

With the new computer’s design, new tasks could be written into memory, removing the need for manual rewiring.In the 1980s intel signed a contract to produce CPUs for the upcoming IBM PC.Many competitors in the CPU market came and went but intel and AMD were the biggest and most popular manufacturiers Up until the 1990s intel and AMD chips were identical and could be used interchangeably, this was because of the contrantract signed by intel in the 1980s, allowing AMD to use Intel’s chip design. After a long battle a settlement was reached an AMD stopped using intel’s designsIntel creates the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15th, 1971. The 4004 had 2,300 transistors, performed 60,000 operations per second , had 640 bytes of memory, and cost $200 USD.Intel’s first 16-bit processor was the 8086, which helped to boost performance considerably compared to earlier designs. It was released in 1976.The intel 1880 was the CPU used in the original IBM PC’s.

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It was manufactured from 1979 to the 1990s. It used a 16-bit processor and had a speed of 5Mhz – 10MhzThe Motorola 68000, a 16/32-bit processor is released in 1979 and was later chosen as the processor for the Apple Macintosh and Amiga computers.Intel’s first 32-bit x86 processor was the 80386, released in 1985. A big advantage that this processor had was its ability to support up to 4GB of system memory. It had processing speeds of 12Mhz – 40MhzIntel 80486 was another significant step up in terms of performance. It was released in 1989. The key to its success was tighter integration of components into the CPU.The intel IA-64 is in the intel Itanium family of 64-bit CPUs introduced in 2001.

They were able to support a max RAM of 2ˆ64 bytes.CPUs have changed shape over the years, they first came in a DIP or dual inline package, their next form was known as the slotted form and they have since evolved into the square shaped PGA or pin grid array form.The density of CPUs has changed over the years as well.

An observation by Gordon Moore, the co-founder of intel, it that states the number of transistors on an integrated circuit will double every two years for the foreseeable future, this observation is known as moore’s law. This prediction has held true for many years but it has become much harder to fit more transistors on circuits so new manufacturing process will have to be developed.The most advanced computer chip today was developed by IBM and it contains over 20 billion transistors, each one being only 7 nanometers long.The future of the CPUMoore’s law may soon be inaccurate, as it becomes harder and harder to fit more transistors on something so small.One possibility is to continue using silicone and build the processors taller, instead of trying to fit more transistors on the same amount of space.Another possibility is known as the III-V approach, where elements from either side of the periodic table would be used to build a cpu that used less energy to move electrons around making it possible to use smaller transistors.

Carbon nanotubes are also being explored as an option for the future of cpus. When IBM tested the material they didn’t encounter increasing electrical resistance as contact sizes were reduced, they said we could be seeing these types of CPU’s within the next decade. A quote from IBM’s  Shi-Jen Han shows the possibilities of carbon nanotubes: “Better transistors can offer higher speed while consume less power. Plus, carbon nanotubes are flexible and transparent. They could be used in futuristic ‘more than Moore’ applications, such as flexible and stretchable electronics or sensors embedded in wearables that actually attach to skin – and are not just bracelets, watches, or eyewear”Probably the most interesting future for CPU’s is quantum computing. Quantum computers doesn’t use 1s and 0s like traditional computers, instead quantum numbers can exist in multiple states at the same time, which means in 64-bit quantum computer, each 64-bit register is capable of holding 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 different values at the same time. The prospect of a computer with this capability is exciting but there are many hurdles to go over, like how it should be cooled, etc.Bibliography:Fisher, Tom (2018,January,16).

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“Intel’s 10 Most Important CPU Launches.” PCWorld, PCWorld, 2 June 2016,, Gary. “Beyond Silicon: We Discover the Processors of Your Future Tech.

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