Ituses various tools and techniques like work breakdown structure riskmanagement, scenario planning, etc. These tools and techniques act like aguideline for he manager which enables them to set and define goals andobjectives, select the best course of action, optimum utilization of resourcesi.e. men, machine, money, material, method and time; check the progress of theproject and make changes in the plan or scope as and when required.
Marriottused these tools and techniques to make their bedding program a big success. Skillsrequired for a successful project are communication, motivation, negotiation,time management, risk management, etc. These skills help to bridge any gaps inthe project to complete the project on time.
Marriott used communication toovercome the challenges faced due to cultural and time differences. Itsemployees were motivated to reduce employee turnover which added to their costas new employees needed training. These skills also helped the project managerto plan the course of action and anticipate the possible risks. It helped themanager to identify various challenges and plan how to overcomes thesechallenges. A project is a a unique output, starting point and afinishing point. Management functions are planning, organizing, leading andcontrolling. Project management cycle starts with initiating, planning,executing, monitoring and controlling and lastly completion of the project.
ConclusionTask 45. Team building – A team may be made up of people from various cultures,with different needs and ambitions. The project manager must understand theneeds of each team member and direct all the employees to the achievement oforganizational goals. To work in a team, the team members must trust each otherand work together as a single unit http://smallbusiness.chron.
com/people-management-skills-2985.html4. Trainingand development – training and development is essential for the wellbeing of acompany. Effective training will increase employee productivity and it will inturn generate more revenue for the company. It helps the employee to stayup-to-date with the latest technology and systems (Management Study Guide, n.d.
)3. Delegation– Delegation plays an important role in people management. When work andresponsibilities are assigned to the employees, they get a clear vision of whatis to be done. Delegating authority will make the employees feel responsibleand will give a sense of trustworthiness. Employees are accountable for thework and tasks assigned to them.2. Motivation– Motivation is one of the important people management skills.
Motivation givesthe employees a sense of appreciation and belongingness. When the employees aremotivated, their productivity increases which will benefit the company.Motivation will also reduce or eliminate employee turnover.1. Communication– Project managers must communicate effectively with its employee.Communication must be clear so that the employees understand what exactly isexpected from them. It will give a clear picture of the company’s vision andmission.
Clear communication will also help to avoid confusion and doubt.c. People Management Skills 5. Flexibility– The project manager should be flexible to make changes in the scope as andwhen required. At Marriott’s, new requirements and changes were evaluatedduring the implementation of the project.4. Delegation– The project managers delegate some authority and responsibilities to itssubordinates in a downward direction. It will not only get the work done but itwill also develop a sense of belongingness.
Marriott established two teams whowere responsible for full service and limited service brands.3. Communication– Communication is one of the important element in every business. Marriott wasa diverse company with people working across time zones, different cultures andlanguages. The project teams made use of conferences, emails, videos, photos,etc. to remove the barrier of communication so that the business runs smoothlywithout confusion.2.
Motivation– To motivate and retain its employees, Marriott’s trained its employees using wordlessvideos and photos on how the beds should be done. This helped the employees tounderstand the work and the various processes and perform effectively andefficiently without any confusion.1. Buildvision – When Marriott’s faced problems with their bedding program, it createda lot of chaos not only within the company but also with other hotels. They hadto stay focused on their goals.
They built their vision and identified thevarious problems that had to be tackled if they wanted to achieve their goal.They identified the most effective solution which would help them stay firmtowards its vision.b. 5 Key Principles of Leadership 4. WorkBreakdown Structure – Work breakdown structure helps in the planning processwhere in main tasks are broken down into smaller unit tasks for effectiveplanning and implementation.
Marriott established teams to carry out varioustasks. These teams were responsible for identifying concepts, conduct marketresearch, test products, etc. When all these tasks were combined, it resultedin the success of the key task i.
e. implementation of the bedding program.3. Budgeting– The budget helps to set a plan of action. It helps to measure the budgetedresults. The bedding program aimed to change the look and increase the comfortof guests in hotels. But this brought about a lot of challenges. The budgetmanual helps to give orders, delegate work and authority, etc.
to meet thebudgeted results. It enhances planning, optimum utilization of resources,motivation, coordination and estimation.2.
Scenario Planning – Marriott faced a lot of problemswith their bedding program. They identified the different problems and set preciseprocedures to deal with the challenges. They implemented various techniqueswhich helped them to boost their communication, procurement and distribution,negotiation, etc. 1. RiskManagement – Properties received their orders piecemeal. These properties faceda risk of storage difficulties. To manage this risk, Marriott contracted anexternal distribution company to handle the procurement and distributionprocess. There were various distribution teams which were responsible fortracking shipments and estimating gaps weekly.
These teams checked theproduction schedules and made plans as to how to report the gaps.a. Tool and TechniquesTask 3Critical Success Factors6. Costmanagement – To save money, Marriott introduced linen reuse program which alsohelped to conserve energy and water (Landau, 2017).5. Workingunder pressure – Project teams had to work under pressure, but they managed theproblems well4. Peoplemanagement – Marriott faced employee turnover. To retain their employees, itgave training to its employees with the help audio-visuals, conference calls,etc.
3. Timemanagement skills – To reduce the time lag, Marriott’s swiftly outsourced itsprocurement and repackaging process to an external distribution company.2. ProblemSolving Skill – Marriott’s project teams identified the various problems thecompany was facing and implemented the best solution which benefited thecompany.
1. Communication– There should be clear communication to avoid confusion among the employee.Marriott’s project team provided training to employee using photos and videos.ProjectManagement Skills and KnowledgeMarriott introduced an intranetwebsite where information could be easily posted and accessed. Also, conferencecalls were conducted during ordering process and the shipment of linen toensure clear instructions and no confusion.5. EmployeeTurnover – Property management teams needed to be trained for bedding changeand ordering process.
They also needed to train staff to overcome the languagebarriers between managers and housekeeping. During this period the propertiesfaced staff turnover. To save cost, Marriottintroduced linen reuse system where in the linen could be changed only whenneeded upon the request of guests. This helped hotels to conserve energy andsave money.4.
Cost– Some newly established properties had to face financial burden since thebedding standards needed them to dispose their newly purchased linen. To tackle this problem,Marriott contracted an external distribution company which received, repackedand shipped the bedding to the various hotels.3. TimeManagement – Marriott bedding was manufactured and distributed from companieswhich were overseas. This created a time lag of six months between the orderand delivery time. Toovercome this challenge, the project teams introduced training videos whichwere wordless which helped to demonstrate how the bedding should be used withthe help of photos.2.
Communication– the project teams had to work with people with different cultures, languages,government regulations and across different time zones. In such situationeffective communication became a big challenge. Tosolve this problem Marriott asked all properties some simple questions and thencreated a database which helped the procurement team to estimate the cost ofeach hotel. 1.
Monitoringand Controlling – Marriott had a bedding standard before the Bedding Program in2004. Hotels were of different ages and hence there was a variation in thebedding specifications. So many different variations indicated that the projectscope was a big challenge. MarriottBedding Program faced a lot of challenges across the globe and it had toidentify the problems and formulate strategies to overcome these problems.Introduction Task 2· It improves the internal relation amongthe employees. As the employees work closely in teams to achieve their goal,they develop the sense of team spirit. This improves coordination andproductivity.
· It helps to improve communication betweenall the people involved in the project. Communication flows from the top levelto lower level and vice versa. It enhances the organizational breakdown structureand helps the employee to identify their duties.· It helps in reducing time by eliminatingunnecessary tasks. It closely monitors all the tasks and identifies which taskis lagging and then works towards completion of the task on time.
It usestechniques like Gantt chart and Pert to monitor the time taken by tasks.· It enhances customer satisfaction bymeeting the requirements of its customers. Customers are happy when theyproject is on time and within their budget.· It improves flexibility by helping thebusiness to change strategies as and when they identify new strategies whichcould benefit their business even more.
You can also make changes ormodifications in the project scope.· It helps to give a clear vision and focusto the company. This improves the Project Managers ability to select the besttasks which will help their business.· Project Management helps to reduce cost bycontrolling cost and allocating the resources efficiently. It helps to makeoptimum utilization of resources with minimum wastage. Reduction in cost thenhelps to increase its profit margins.b. Importanceof Project Managementa.
DougMilis, CEO of Global Construction states that project management has helpedthem to reduce the cost by improvingthe ability to select the best projectwhich is beneficial for the success of the business. Project management is alsoimportant as it has helped the company to improveits productivity by helping it to get things done and quickly respond tothe market changes. There is a betterinternal co-ordination in the business as Marie Scott, Director of PMO,aligned the projects with its business strategy which helped them to haveconsistent processes. Project management has helped Doug to have a clear focus and vision which has madehim confident that they’ll be successful in the future (Research Gate, 2013).