Itarises mainly from funding of long-term assets by short-term liabilities,thereby making the liabilities subject to rollover or refinancing risk.Liquidity Risk of a bank is inability to meet its obligations when they becomedue without incurring improper losses. It may even give rise to legal actionand reputation risk.
When bank dealing in electronic money face interest raterisk because of adverse movements in interest rates. The liquidity risk inbanks may be of the following types, funding risk, time risk, call risk.(p.90-112)Cyber-crimechallengesItis the criminal activity or a crime that involves the internet a computer systemor technology. It can include 1) identity theft, 2) phishing schemes, 3) theftof corporate funds, assets, and computer resources, 4) disclosure,modification, or destruction of personally identification information or proprietaryinformation, 5) abuse of compeer resources for unauthorised purpose and 6)causing damage to networks and equipment. Identifyingand perpetrators of cyber-crime is often a challenges for law enforcementbecause access to a company’s computer system can occur in many different waysby many different people. The damage from a single incident can affect manydifferent individuals and entities as well. Those crime people include, 1)criminal groups that commit theft, online fraud etc.
2) hackers who may or maynot be politically motivated. 3) disgruntled insiders. 4) bot-net operators whouse network remotely controlled systems to coordinate attacks.
5) nations andagencies of nations that use cyber tools as part of their espionage activities.6) terrorists who seeks to destroy the national security, weaken the economy,and to damage public morale and confidence. And these threats come from without and within. So we can say that themultifaceted problems require multifaceted solutions. Companies cannot dependon the federal government to protect their interests in this area.
The managerswill continue to be called on for the development of strategies to control andprevent the so called treat from different parts of the people and the nations.So organisations are under assault from without and within and they mustprepare accordingly. (sam advanced management journal, vol 81, no 2 2016,threat and challenges of cyber-crime and responses by c alexander hewes jr. pg.4-10).