INTRODUCTION TO BARLEYBarley is a significant food source for humans and used as acrop for animal feed. It comes on fourth number in the area offarming of cereal crop in the world. The vital role of barley isthat, it is used as a material which is used for manufacturing ofmalt and beer.
The process of malting involve the germinationof barley in a controlled condition in which hydrolytic enzymesare produced which digest the starch of the endosperm,protein and cell walls, which makes the grain easilycrumbled.(Bamforth and Barclay, 1993)INTRODUCTION TO MALTMalting is restricted germination of cereal grains.Occasionallymalt is used after drying in a warm air or by sun drying.
It isused to prepare food and drinks in all over the world. Inindustrialized countries usually malt is prepared by barley but itcan also be made by different varieties of millet, wheat, maize,oat rye, triticale and even the rice.The word malt is derived from the word “melt” as during theprocess of germination it becomes soft, or may be the word”malled”(broken) because in the processing of brewing maltare milled. (D.E.
Briggs, 1998)Protein in Barley and MaltThe barley consists of number of protein. The fully ripenedgrain of barley contains a wide range of protein that versatile instructure, location, role and other chemical and visiblequalities. The seed tissues of barley have large number ofdissolve protein contents and a clear entire complement of aprotein. The three tissues of the barley seed which are the maintissues are the embryo, aleurone layer, and endosperm .theamount of protein in barley is an important factor to identifythe attributes of malting, which is affected by the fertility ofsoil, fertilizer application, rotation of crop and climateconditions.( Finnie C and Svensson B ,2003)The quality of barley seed is determined by the presence ofprotein.
In the process of malting, the enzyme proteinasesbreakdown the barley storage protein into amino acid andpeptides. (Kunze W, 2007, Narzi L, 2005, Jones BL et al 2000).The most important factor for the composition of protein is toestimate the level of protein in malting and which can bemeasured by conventionally method, the Kolbach index(soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen*100).( Evans DE,1998, Iimure T,2008)Why Barley is best for Malting Process?Barley consist of such enzymes which convert theinsoluble starch into simple sugars and it also consist ofsimple protein, produce yeast and develop the otherenzymes.(Kelly J. Kuehl,1994 )Why is the Mash important?To convert starch into sugar, it is an important stepwhich affects the finished beer.Starch DegradationRaw Barley(ComplexStarch)Mash(Starch toSugar)Malted Barley(Simple Starch)Malting ProcessMalting is a set of processes in which germination ofbarley is done in order to make sugar present inside thekernel suitable for mashing.Malting process consist of three basic steps which are? Steeping? Germination? KilningSteeping? The aim of steeping is to uniformly hydrate the endospermof the raw barley kernel.
? The process of germination will enhance by increase of themoisture content of barley grain is almost 12% to 45%.? The process of steeping is complete approximately 36-48hours and it depends upon the moisture content of rawbarley kernel which is going to steep.Germination? After the process of steeping the grains need to sproutfully so that the kernels are scattered in a hiddencompartment type “bed”.? The beds of germination barley not exceed 15cm.? The traditional floor malting is usually preferred in mostlymalt houses.? The beds of grain required aeration at regular interval.? To develop the grain rootlets, set over the next 3-6 days sothat malt’s protein and enzyme content are modified.
? The malt will be highly modified as long as the duration ofgermination is given.? In the post germination process pre-kilned barley is madewhich is called “green malt”KILNING? The green malt or sprouted malt is moved into kiln to drywhich modify the kernel.? Malt is dried as much as possible at a lower temperaturearound 90°F which helps to preserve the enzyme in themalt.? The 1st drying period usually takes about 24 hours.? The 2nd drying period is carried at slightly hightemperature around 120°F which last for approximately12hours.? The 3rd step is curing which takes about 24-48 hours atalmost 180-220°F.? The process of malt affects the stability, fragrance andtaste.
? The process of malt regulates the length of kilning andtemperature.FINISHED MALTMalt is splited into two distinct groups:? Brewer’s or Base Malt? Specialty MaltBase malt has the ability to convert their own starch.Speciality malt has less ability so that they are just only use toprovide taste, essence, and color to the finished beer.MALT ANALYSIS6 Critical Points1)Color ( it change from batch to batch)2) Moisture (Base malt should be 1.5%)3) Extract (DBCG)(Dry Basis Coarse Grind)4) Diastatic Power (power to reduce the starch enzymeinto malt)5) Protein (Total) 10-12%6) Kernel Size (easier to mill)(Greg Noonan, 1997)raw barleycleaning andgradinggraded barleysteepinggerminationkilningcleaningclean malthulls &sprouts Process of MaltingIntroduction to Cereal ProductionCereal grains are the basic component of human diet forthousands of years and have played a major role in developinghuman customs.
Wheat, maize, and rice, and to a lesser extent,sorghum and millets, are important staple cereal crops aroundthe world. From the consumption of cereal grain more than50% of world daily caloric intake is directly obtained.The cerealgrains used for human food are milled to remove bran(pericarp) & germ, particularly to meet the expectations ofconsumers.
As compared to developed countries thedeveloping countries depend more on cereal grains fornutritional purposes. Cereal grains are considered as the mostimportant and single source of calories to the majority of worldnatives. More than 80% calories in poor countries & close to60% of calories in developing countries are directly derivedfrom cereals. In developed areas approximately 30% of caloriesderived directly from cereals.
However, in the richest countriesthat do not consume cereals directly, the grains remainthemost important food material, since they provide most of thenutrients forthe animals that form a major part of food in theseareas. Among various factors, there are three most importantfactorson which type of grains produced depend around theworld. These are environmental, cultural, and economicfactors. The most critical environmental factors that probablydetermine the crops grown in a specific region are temperature and the water availability. Theregions where water is availablein excess, rice is dominant crop & also to some extent maize.
Rice is often grown under floodingconditions, therefore mostsensitive to water deficiency. For the production of rice in mostregions, enough rainfall or accessible fresh water mustbeavailable.(Awika et al, 2011)Major Cereal Crops:1. Rice (Oryza sativa)2. Wheat, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)3. Durum wheat, macaroni wheat (Triticum durum)4.
Corn or maize (Zea mays)5. Job’s Tears, salay, adlay, tigbe, pawas (Coix lachryma-jobi)6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare)7. Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)8. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)9. Oat (Avena sativa)10. Rye (Secale cereale)11. Triticale (xTriticosecale)12.
Teff, taf (Eragrostis tef)13. Fonio (Digitaria exilis)14. Wild rice, Canada rice, Indian rice, water oats (Zizaniaspp.
)15. Spelt (Triticum spelta)16. Canary grass (Phalaris sp.) (Ben G.
Bareja, 2015)Cereal Crop Production TechnologiesThe initial incentive to improved productivity is an indicator tothe development of hybrid varieties whereas the more recentapproach is basically the result of advancements in cropproduction technologies. The development of hybrid varietiesare broadly documented, but only recently that wide range ofreports has been published on the modern methods of cropproduction. (ALDRICH, S. R, LENG, E.
R, 1965)With respect to pesticides and fertilizersGreen revolutiontechnique uses high energy of crop production technologies.There are several problems reported related to the pests withgreen revolution crops. The problems can be more criticalwhenthere is energy crisis in the world. A careful judgement shouldbe created of the advantages, prices, and dangers of highenergy-demand green revolution agriculture in order to be surethat this program will not increase the serious world foodsituation. (David Pimentel, L. E. Hurd, A.
C. Bellotti, M. J.Forster, I. N. Oka, O.
D. Sholes, R. J. Whitman, 1973)It is clear that every method of production, from seedbedpreparation to harvesting and storage of the crop as silage orgrain, is the subject of serious study from recent years.Howeverminimum cultivation techniques are useful for many areas in the Corn Belt and trusted to become increasingly popular.Recent research data has justified the commercial bent towardsnarrow drill rows, early sowing and high plant populations.(ALDRICH, S.
R, LENG, E. R, 1965)RiceRice the most important source for gaining Rice is the singlemost important source of calories for humans. Among cereal,rice is grown mainly for direct human consumption with verylittle making it to other uses. Rice contributes approximately21% of world per capita caloric intake, and 27% of per capitacalories in the developing countries.The distribution andproperties of soil, climate, hydrology-related, and abioticfactors highlight the importance of the goal, which can helpwith particular characteristics, such as submergence tolerance(Xu et al., 2006), tolerance of better rice varieties, phosphorusshortage tolerance (Gamuyao et al., 2012) and water stresstolerance (Verulkar et al.
, 2010). Aerobic rice varieties aregrown by crossing traditional lowland and upland varieties(Atlin et al., 2006). Another technique of rice planting is paddyrice.
They are grown by replanting 25- to 35-days-old seedlingsin well-developed puddled soils to judge decontamination,growth of weeds, and infestation. It needs large quantity offresh water for its complete growth. Many technologies havebeen found for rice cultivation, for example another wetting-drying, direct sowing, motorized systems of rice increase. Withthe collaboration of national and international researchorganizations Aerobic rice systems are well established in theprovinces of Punjab and Sindh by the Pakistan Research Council(PARC) (IRRI, 2010; Sharif, 2011).
For example, as anothermethod for replanting of seedlings, seeds are directly sown inthe field. This system is suitable for the fields where there isreduction of unit area cost and labour is not available (Pandeyet al., 2002; Pandey and Velasco, 2005). Moreover, wide rangeof chemicals is used for weed control, which also reduceslabour for weeding (Farooq et al., 2011). Irrigation needs areachieved when soil water is low to its critical level. The generalproduction of aerobic rice & directly seeded rice are morebeneficial and environmentally strong production system.That’s why in water-scarce areas, aerobic rice system isbeneficial technique (Bouman et al.
, 2007; Bouman et al.,2005). According to a report which was published by FAO(2000), 69% of fresh water is used for irrigation in agricultureand from all foods approx.
40 per centis produced by irrigationin agriculture. This strategy has given the vastness toproduction of cereals (rice & wheat) using less amount ofirrigation water. There is a threat to Pakistan suffering forshortage of irrigation water in future. Farmers use generallyopen flooded systems for irrigating fields due to which water isnot distributed uniformly and sometimes it is over-irrigated (Kahlown and Kemper, 2004).
There is a trend towardsdepending on rice crops expecting standing water during thegrowing to increase the yields. Various researches withinPakistan has shown that 13 cm–18 cm of water is used forirrigating the field, which is noticeably more than the exploitiveuse between two irrigation events, which is approx. 8 cm(Kahlown et al., 2001).WheatWheat is a staple crop of many countries where it is consumeddirectly and considered as an important cereal crop.
Defensibility and honesty in food production are very importantfor justifiable crop production. Supply of water & energy arevery important and will always be beneficial for creating a baseto the sustainability of agriculture and reliability of foodproduction. Golden era of water management was experiencedby Pakistan in 1980s; canal irrigation system was alsodeveloped at that time. The GDP values of Pakistan economymainly depends on agriculturebecause Pakistan is anagricultural country unavailability of water in agriculture hasadverse effects on economy. More than 40 per cent of labour isinvolved directly or indirectly in agriculture sector (Pakistan,2008–09). In Pakistan, staple crops like wheat are generallyplanted on flat basin which is flooded with irrigation water; alarge amount of water is wasted due to that irrigation method.
Evaporation and deep percolation losses also cause a severeshortages to crops related to overexploitation of groundwater,encouraging a search for alternative methods of waterapplication to crops, for example, raised bed (RB) technology,to meet water demands. There is a serious challenge foragriculturists to meet the feeding requirements of nine billionpeople by the middle of the 21st century (FAO, 2009). Toproduce more food from less water in arid and semi-arid areasis a challenge for today’s agriculture (Shideed, 2011). Watershortage and scarcity cause degradation of land due to rain-fedagriculture (Suleimenov et al., 2011) and lower foodproduction, particularly in the agricultural and semi-agriculturalzones of Africa (Fraiture et al., 2010).
Approximately 80 percent of the world’s agriculture comprises rain-fed land, whichproduces 80 per cent of the food globally (Falkenmark et al.,2001; Valipour, 2013). In North Africa and West Asia, 95 percent of land is rain-fed, and approximately 40 per cent of theland in Uzbekistan has been used due to water shortages,causing despoiled fields (Shaumarov and Birner, 2013; Zakariaet al., 2013). Wheat is an important crop in Pakistan due to itswidespread use as food (Iqtidar et al.
, 2006). Limited waterresults in susceptibility to water scarcity conditions, causingwheat biomass to reduce wheat crops (Oweis and Hachum,2004; Tavakkoli and Oweis, 2004; Xie et al., 2005). Harvestingand utilization of rain water have been successfully used in many arid regions, using runoff water from the catchment areaand delivering it to the collection acreage (Qiang et al.
, 2006;Short and Lantzke, 2006). Rain water efficiency can beimproved with appropriate water harvesting techniques, suchas micro-watersheds (Rogelio et al., 2006; Zakaria et al., 2012).Using this technique can increase the capacity of water per unitof crop area and can also increase productivity (Oweis andHachum, 2003; Ramotra and Giakwad, 2012).