IntroductionDyslexia is one of the most common ailments a person mayhave, and more specifically a child. There is a non-uniform brain functionwith insufficient performance in some areas and sufficient for others.
It wasinitially considered that dyslexia only affects the written language. It thenturned out to be able to influence oral speech, text comprehension, and evenmathematical skills. It is worth noting that dyslexic students do not havereduced intelligence3. They almost all have a mean intelligence (AD 85 – 115)or higher (AD> 115). As to how to diagnose and deal with dyslexia,scientists seem to disagree.What is dyslexia?Dyslexia is a neurobiological and neurodevelopmental naturewith the hereditary predisposition. It affects the cognitive processes of thebrain regarding the acquisition of reading, writing, spelling skills.
Researchers note that there are many possible causes in terms of Dyslexia,including genetic factors. It can also be caused by a combination ofdifficulties in phonological processing, working memory, rapid recall, andsequence as well as automation of basic skills. Along with the above issues,the effort made by people with Dyslexia to move into life in a dyslexicenvironment, which is extremely inhospitable to the subject, in particular, isintense. There is absolutely no relationship between intelligence,socio-economic status, and dyslexia. In addition, the different socio-culturalenvironments, as well as the choices in education, have a significant impact onthe opportunities presented in the lives of people with dyslexia. Causes ofDyslexia. The lack of phonological perception as well as the difficultyof phonological processing is considered by many scientists to be the primaryfactor of Dyslexia. This is often referred to as a central deficit.
However,many researchers have talked about individual deficits such as the problemswith the rapid recall and the lack of ability to process visual informationsuch as spelling. These deficits may occur individually, as is the case withthe simple deficit case, or together, as is the case with the multiple deficitcases. As research continues, many would agree that Dyslexia is adevelopmental syndrome with a neurological and genetic basis.Strengths and Weaknesses of People with DyslexiaAlthough there is a clear concern about the fact thatDyslexia appears to be a learning disability, however, the research has alsohighlighted the positive elements that flow from it.
Many of the people withdyslexia have particular skills in architecture, engineering, and othercreative arts. Good performances also appear in acting as well as inhumanitarian professions. If these people are given the appropriate help thenthey can have great successes and achieve higher education degrees.
Many ofthem have already done so. Regardless of intelligence andmotivation, children with dyslexia cannot learn the conventional way ofteaching. However, if the dyslexia of these children is diagnosed early, thenthey can successfully enter the learning process through a specialized,oriented, structured and systematic educational process.
These children willalways need more support and encouragement.The dictum of the word “Dyslexia” reveals adifficulty in the use of words and not just in their reading. The term”dyslexia” refers to a more complex and multifactorial syndrome thanto a simple reading problem. In many European countries, the term”Dyslexia” refers more to problems related to phonological awareness.In others, including Greece, the term is often misused as an umbrella for thewide range of learning difficulties.DiagnosisThere is a non-uniform brain function with insufficientperformance in some areas and sufficient for others.
It was initiallyconsidered that dyslexia only affects the written language. It then turned outto be able to influence oral speech, text comprehension, and even mathematicalskills. It is worth noting that dyslexic students do not have reducedintelligence3. They almost all have a mean intelligence (AD 85 – 115) or higher(AD> 115).
As to how to diagnose and deal with dyslexia, scientists seem todisagree. They agree, however, on the characteristics of dyslexic students,some of which are:Difficulties in spelling(Discography)Difficulties in reading (Dysgnathia)Difficulties in WritingLearning Difficulties in MathematicsDismantlingProblems in spelling concern:omissions, replacements,contradictions, additions to graphs and/or syllables, and/or words difficultyin automating the grammatical rules they have already learned and applied them,above all in free writingdifficulty in using punctuationdifficulty in using chapters at thebeginning of sentences or names.DystoniaThe problems of reading concern twodifferent axes:A) the decoding mechanism, that is,how the symbols (charts) are associated with each other in order to make words:omissions, replacements,contradictions, additions to graphs and/or syllables, and/or wordsslow reading ratemany pauses, intermittent reading,losing his position, reading wrongB) reading comprehension, independentof the decoding mechanism:unable to recall what he read,whether it is about information or the exact vocabularydifficulty in drawing conclusions orspeculating on the issues he has readinsufficient ability to generalizeand use already recorded knowledge to answer questions on the text read.
Dysanagnostics involves difficultiesin the mechanism of decoding symbols and/or understanding content reading. Theindividual, for example, may experience difficulties either in one or theother. Many times, however, it can face difficulties in both reading skills andunderstanding of what reads. However, it is important that not all childrenacquire reading skills during the same time periods. Some children may begin toread by 3-year-olds and other children will be able to automate this skill (andnot necessarily fine-tune it) after 12 years.
Difficulties in encoding and decodingthe language are improved and gradually smoothened, never surpassing them. Atolder ages, while problems seem to be “overcome”, they usuallyreappear when the teen is tired, stressed, and/or when time limits are reached.Difficulties in WritingIt concerns the difficulty in thewritten structure and formulation. In the way, the child organizes andtranslates to the written level the new-incoming information and acquiredknowledge.
Learning Difficulties in MathematicsLearning Difficulties in Mathematicsmay coexist with Problems of Dysortography and/or Anagnost BUT refer to adifferent neurodevelopmental disorder. They may have the same difficulties inunderstanding mathematical concepts and the problems they are reading. Thedifficulty that a child may have in reading comprehension can affect or coexistwith problems in understanding mathematical problems. This is why LearningDifficulties in Mathematics does not – arbitrarily – entail difficulties inencoding and decoding the language. The above difficulties do not falldue to low cognitive potential, vision problems or inadequate training. Thesediagnostic criteria are based on the fact that the specific difficulties of thechild are significantly lower than expected for their chronological age,general cognitive ability and the school class they are attending.Effects and emotional effectsDyslexia is found throughout theworld irrespective of culture or language and affects about 8% of thepopulation who is experiencing a syndrome that in many cases can inhibit theprocess of schooling with 2-4% of the population being seriously affected byit.In class at the time of reading,copying from the table or spelling (in Primary), the student tends to beanxious, can not follow the order of other children, may create a”situation” to avoid reading or writing, becomes physically anxious,and can present stuttering.
Difficulties in the reading and/or writing processcan often be hidden behind a problematic behavior whether it concerns anxiety/mobilityor problematic attention, lack of participation and in the classroom. It is,therefore, necessary to ascertain whether the child has a disruptive behaviorprimarily or secondary.Whatever it may be, it is notpossible for someone to experience so many years of failure at the school levelwithout it being detrimental to him. Lack of self-confidence, as well as lowself-esteem, are often the consequences of dyslexia.
There are seriousemotional implications for a student who is unable to develop effective skillsand strategies in key areas of the school curriculum due to Dyslexia. As poorperformance in school can be combined with distraction, laziness, lack ofmaturity and aversion to the school environment, this mixture often adverselyaffects self-esteem and motivation for learning.The same happens when parents andteachers are in a disagreement about how to interpret and manage this learningdisability. Many people with dyslexia report that they often experience verbaland physical violence by their peers, which causes them defensive and secretivebehavior, thus avoiding being exposed.People with dyslexia are soaccustomed to making a mistake that they often avoid taking risks, thus losingconfidence in themselves. They often underestimate their abilities andknowledge and they seem to think they can not do anything good because theyjust face some difficulty in writing, spelling, and reading. Difficulties in followinginstructions and sequence of events.
An analogous case is dyscalculia. In 1961,R. Cohn proposed the term dwarfism to attribute the situation in which astudent has difficulties in learning mathematics while he has no lowintelligence. The Czech neuroscientist Kosc defined (1974) the diminishing asfollows: “Developmental dyscrasimia is a structuraldisorder of mathematical abilities which is based on a genetic or inherentdisorder of certain parts of the brain – parts that are the directanatomic-physiological substrate of the appropriate age maturation ofmathematical abilities – without a simultaneous disturbance of general mentalfunctions “.
Children with a mathematical doublette havenot been performing satisfactorily, while other lessons have been. They noteomissions, conversions, and replacements when writing and reading numbers or confusingmathematical symbols. They fail to understand and recall mathematical conceptsand algorithms needed to solve problems. They cannot do anything. They cannotmemorize numerical data, they have difficulty in orientation difficulties inrecalling a series of events.
Appropriate font for readers with dyslexiaThe font includes regular, bold,oblique, and bold style. It is constantly updated and improved on the basis ofdata from dyslexic users. There are no restrictions on the use of OpenDyslexic.