Introduction In this report,the author will look at two theoretical concepts, motivation and leadership inHistorical Cadbury. The reason the author selected these topics to speak aboutwere; they were a crucial part to the success of Cadburys. This report willinclude motivation and leadership concepts and will be applied to the contextof Historical Cadbury. I have chosen leadership and motivation as I believethey were fundamental to the success of Cadburys. The purpose of this report isto demonstrate an understanding of some of the dynamics and influences at playwithin Cadburys. The author will also look to demonstrate how motivation andleadership impacts in the workplace. Another element of the discussion will beabout the concepts Cadburys used in order to accomplish their organisationalgoals.
In conclusion, the author will give their personal opinion on whetherthey believe motivation and leadership had an impact on Cadburys in thehistorical era. In 1824, JohnCadbury opened a grocer’s shop at 93 Bull Street, Birmingham. The Cadbury business was born in 1831, whenJohn Cadbury decided to begin producing on a commercial scale and bought afour-storey warehouse.
Cadburys was built upon Quaker beliefs. In a Quakercommunity, a struggling business was a liability, falling into debt was seen asa form of theft and was punished severely (Cadbury, 2011). In1861, John Cadburys health declined and he retired, handing over the businessto his sons Richard and George and gave them complete control. Richard andGeorge were 26 and 21 at the time they took over the business. The great hopewas to come up with a breakthrough product.
At this time, the business wasstruggling and by 1861 Richard recorded a loss of £226 and Georges loss wasabout the same. It was up to Richard and George to come up with something tosave the business and fulfil the dream of their family. There was on last hope,they both inherited £4,000 from their mother and were determined to save thedream of having a family chocolate factory and they used their inheritanceright down to the last penny. If they failed with the capital they hadinvested, the factory would be closed down (Cadbury, 2011). In 1878 George andRichard had a vision to find a special site for their new factory. The site compromisedmeadow with a cottage and a stream. Bournville was chosen as the name of thefactory.
In 1897, Cadburys chocolate was launched and hit the shelves. In 1905,Cadbury dairy milk was launched and it soon led on to become the best seller atCadburys and still remains as the biggest chocolate in the world to date. Motivation The author is now going to explain different types of motivationaltheories. The first theory the author is going to speak about is Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs.
Motivation is the predisposition that arouses and directsbehavior towards certain goals. Motivation comes from sources other than money.A motivation model was proposed by Abraham Maslow. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needstheory postulates that people tend to fulfil the lower end of the pyramidbefore they move onto focusing on needs at the upper end (Blythe, Jim. 2008) AbrahamMaslow suggested a hierarchical order of human needs, as outlined in figure2.3. according to Maslow, as humans we tend to satisfy lower-orderpsychological needs first, before safety needs, belongingness needs, esteemneeds and the need for self-actualisation.
The concept possesses logicalsimplicity, making it useful for understanding how humans prioritise needs (Baines,Fill and Rosengren, n.d. 2016). Safety needs include: security, stability and astructured environment. Relationship needs include love and friendship. Thefinal two, esteem and self-actualisation include feelings of independence andintrinsic motivation. (Adair, 2009) Psychological needs have to beachieved in order for employees to gradually climb the ladder in the hierarchyof needs. Employers can use this hierarchy of needs that was proposed byAbraham Maslow to better understand their employees and have an understandingas to where they belong.
The ability to gradually move up the ladder will putemployees in good stead and help employers move forward with a motivatedworkforce. The author isnow going to speak about Locke and Latham’s Theory. Goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002) was established within organisational over thecourse of 25 years, based on 400 laboratory studies. These studies presentedthat specific goals lead to an advanced level of task performance than do easygoals.
So as long as an individual is devoted to the goal, has the necessaryability to achieve it, and does not have contradictory ambitions, there is apositive, direct connection between goal difficulty and task performance. Goalsare used to affect in that they set the bar for personal satisfaction withperformance. High, or hard, goals are motivating because they push one to achievemore in order to be content than do low and easy goals. There are several components to the link between performance and goals. Goalsdirect thought, determination, and action.
High goals cause additional effort and/or determination than do simple goals.Goals could simply encourage one to use their existing ability, and should encourage theindividual to probe for new information. The key to goal setting is feedback. Followers want this to trace their development and commitment to the goal.
(Locke and Latham, 2006).LeadershipThe author is now going to explain different types ofleadership theories. The first leadership theory the author is going to speakabout is the Great Man Theory.
Before the mid-twentieth century, the Great ManTheory seized authority in the minds of individuals looking to outline the mostchallenging quality: leadership. Bernard M. Bass (1990) defends that many individualsaccepted the belief of Jerome Dowd that individuals in all societies possessdifferent levels of intellect, energy and moral strength, and in any route the majoritymay be swayed to go, they are always led by the higher-class few. There was a generalagreement that leaders diverged from their workers, and that foresight was afactor over the course of history.
The debate that leaders are born, not made,was generally acknowledged, not only by scholars, but by individuals trying tosway the behavior of others. (Organ, D. 1996) A lot of information suggests that people at the timewere very absorbed in the Great Man Theory.
Regardless of whether leaders areborn or made, it is evident in the Great Man Theory that leaders are differentto other people. Leaders do not have to be great men or women by being knowledgeableindividuals to prosper, but they do need to have the appropriate stuff and thisis not existent in all individuals. Leadership is a challenging, relentless jobwith immense pressures and duties.
It would be disrespectful to leaders to indicatethat they are normal people who happened to be in the right place at the righttime. In the field of leadership, the individual does matter. (Organ, D. 1996) The second leadership theory the author isgoing to speak about is transformational Leadership. A new example ofleadership has captured a lot of attention.
James MacGregor Burns (1978) conceptualisedleadership as either transactional or transformational. (Riggio, Murphy andPirozzolo, 2002). The author is going to concisely speak about transformationalitself. Transformational leaders are people that encourage followers toaccomplish great outcomes to benefit their own management ability.Transformational leaders assist followers to turn into leaders with the aid ofresponding to followers needs by way of giving them extra authority and helpingthe goals and objectives of the individual, the leaders, the group and theemployer. Extra evidence has gathered to show that transformational leadershipcan push followers to surpass their performance, as well as lead to high stagesof fulfilment and duty to the enterprise. More research has accumulated todemonstrate that transformational leadership is vital in every quarter.Transformational leaders inspire others to do extra than they initially intendedand often even greater than they thought was possible.
They lay down greaterstimulating expectancies and usually gain superior performance.Transformational leaders also tend to have devoted and satisfied followers. Moreover,transformational leaders permit followers and be aware of their uniquerequirements and personal development, assisting followers to broaden their ownmanagement capacity. (Riggio, Murphy and Pirozzolo, 2002). This concept indicatesthe potential to achieve through showing attention to detail to individuals andplacing them in right stead to meet their leadership potential. Literaturereview applied to Cadburys When looking at Cadburys from a historical point of view,many of the above motivational concepts can be applied in many different ways.The author is now going to look at the motivation theories and look at how theyapply to Cadburys using different academic resources.
Maslow’s Hierarchy ofNeeds can be applied to historical Cadburys. The company are providing a wageand safe housing. According to (Cadbury, 2010), George wanted to create safehousing and they did so by building work cottages, the brothers set upmakeshift sleeping arrangements with bedding and pillows for more than twentygirls, and rooms were also found in the surrounding villages. George Cadburywas the first chocolate entrepreneur to create a trust of this kind, and hishopes for what is could accomplish are clear from the deeds. The aim of theBournville trust was the improvement of the conditions of the working class andlaboring population.
With a special emphasis on improving their quality of lifewith gardens and open spaces. This demonstrates that the brothers meet thefirst two tiers of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The third tier of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs relating tothe love/belonging, the buying of a special site for their new factory. The site compromisedmeadow with a cottage and a trout stream.
This could emphasise the idea thatCadburys wanted to build a motivated workplace to show that it is a place thatthe workforce belong to. The establishment of all these additional services atBournville could have been to maintain and gain and motivated workplace andalthough it is the authors opinion that these tactics were to motivateemployees and the workforce, the two brothers wanted to show the company in abright light. The author is now going to applyLocke and Latham’s Theory of Goal-settingtheory to historical Cadbury. These studies presented that tough goals lead toan increased level of task performance than do easy goals. (Locke and Latham,2006). Theauthors states that the primary task for Richard and George is to state theobjectives to the individuals and identify the goals.
The success of Cadburyscan be accountable to the employees. According to (Bradley, 2013) having high ability,highly trained in their field, and intellectually driven to work hard andsmarter was not the end of the Cadbury system. The true prize was the mentalengagement of all employees in the ambitions of the establishment. The keycomponent required for that was well-structured networks of communicationbetween executives and employees. The author believes that this is a clearreflection of the goal theory set by Locke and Latham and states the importanceof goals and strategy in being the true prize of the employees and their activeengagement. The author is now going to look at the leadershiptheories and look at how they apply to Cadburys using different academicresources. The first leadership theory the author is going to apply to Cadburysis the Great Man Theory. The debate that leaders are born, not made, wasgenerally acknowledged, not only by scholars, but by individuals trying to swaythe behavior of others (Organ, D.
1996). According to (Cadbury, 2011) in 1867,George and Richard made one last effort, exploiting something that other Quakerrivals spurned on principle: advertising. Plain Quakers like the Rowntrees inYork believed that a business should be built on the quality and value of itsgoods. The ability for the two brothers to adapt in a difficult situationhighlights their leadership skills and being given the business with suchlittle experience within the field shows that leadership is something you areborn with and it is not made. Additionally, it demonstrates their ability to adaptwhilst going through adversity. According to (Bradley, 2013) the brothers rapidly expanded their range with a host ofnew products, hoping that one would find a way through the competitive minefield.Richard was down to his last £450 while George had managed to hold on to £1500.
The mindset of the two brothers and their tenacity to make decisions aloneshows their leadership skills in a bright light and again, highlights the GreatMan Theory of leaders being born and not made. The second leadership theory the author is going to applyto Cadburys is transformational leadership. Transformational leaders are thosewho motivate and inspire followers to both accomplish extraordinary outcomesand in the process, develop their own leadership ability. Referring to(Cadbury, 2011), George saw the 6am over breakfast, he encouraged workers todiscuss issues in their lives and tried to help with their education, the factorywas not just a business, it was an opportunity to improve society. Thisdirectly reflects on the transformational leadership notion.
Their willingnessto help other people adapt and contribute to their progression, it shows theirtransformational leadership style. According to (Cadbury, 2011), GeorgeCadburys class swelled to three hundred students, and he taught more than 4,000over a period of fifty years. This kind of touching experience fueled George’sconviction that the best way to improve a man’s lot was to raise his ideals.The author believes this to be a clear likeness to the theory. Transformationalleaders permit followers (employees) and pay attention to their specificnecessities and personal development.
This style of leadership shows theireagerness to help the employees working for them. The information stated showsthat the Cadbury brothers had a great sense of transformational leadershipwithin the workplace. The relationship between leadership and motivationWhen looking at motivation and leadership the authorbelieves there is a strong relationship between the two. The author will nowlook at the two and demonstrate the relationship between the two. Motivation is the predisposition thatarouses and directs behavior towards certain goals.
Motivation tends to comefrom sources other than pay. If all of the workplace has a genericunderstanding of their goals and aims, it has a knock-on effect on the productivityof Cadburys. The relationship between motivation and leadership is imposedthrough transformational leadership is they are leaders who motivate and inspire followers to both accomplish extraordinaryoutcomes and in the process, develop their own leadership ability. (Riggio,Murphy and Pirozzolo, 2002). According to (Dvir et al., 2002) transformationalleaders display fascinating behaviours, provide intellectual stimulation andtreat followers with consideration.
This clearly shows the indication betweenmotivation and leadership and show the importance of the two that they liaisein order to reach maximum potential. they work hand in hand for both of them toprosper. These behaviours reshape their followers helping them to achieve theirpotential and generate high levels of functioningMotivation and leadership also link because they enhancemotivation if leaders give followers the drive to achieve something. Accordingto (Dvir et al., 2002) “transformational leaders evaluate the potential of allfollowers in terms of their ability to fulfill current commitments, while alsoenvisioning expansion of their future responsibilities.
” The leaders motivateemployees to move forward and progress after filling their commitments. ConclusionTo conclude, it isevident that motivation and leadership played a pivotal part in the success ofHistorical Cadburys. Transformationalleadership demonstrates how providing motivation and inspiration to followers; both accomplish extraordinaryoutcomes and in the process, develop their own leadership ability. This willthen give the followers the chance to fulfil their potential. The author hasconcluded that the Cadbury’s brothers show both transformational leadership andelements of the Great Man theory.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be seen inhistorical Cadbury as can the theory of Locke and Latham. Levels 1 and 2 inMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs are evident in Cadburys concern of the living andworking environments of the followers. Locke and Latham’s goal setting theorydemonstrates; toughgoals are motivating because they necessitate one to achieve more in order tobe content than do low and/or easy goals (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002). The author believes that thehistorical and contemporary Cadbury have a huge distinction and the author hasprovided the motivation and leadership aspect of historical Cadbury above. The author wanted to explore the theories aroundmotivation and leadership.
The relationship between the two is evident due tothe fact that leaders have to put operations in place to motivate employees andthis is significant because if the leaders didn’t put goals in place tomotivate followers, it could result in a demotivated workforce and lower theperformance of Cadbury’s. The importance of motivation and leadership are hugeand have resulted in the success of Cadbury’s.The author concluded that the link between the two isimmense and it has directly impacted the success of Cadburys. Through manydifferent theoretical concepts can it be shown how Cadburys did certain thingsin their historical era.
Without the sheer leadership skills of George andRichard, plus the motivational drive of the workforce, the success of Cadburysmay not have been as substantial as it turned out to be.