INTRODUCTIONBackgroundof the Study Helminthis a general term that refers to worms. These helminths are multicellulareukaryotic invertebrates with either tube-like or flattened bodies exhibitingbilateral symmetry (O’Donoghue, 2010). They are classified into three groupsaccording to general external shape and host-organ habitat: Trematodes(Flukes), Cestodes (Tapeworms), and Nematodes (Roundworms) (Castro, 1996).
Helminthsinhabiting in the gastrointestinal tract are known to be the nematodes(roundworms).It is revealed that over two billion of the world population areinfected with these parasites. Infection in humans can cause morbidity andsometimes death by compromising nutritional status and can affect cognitive processesinducing tissue reactions, such as granuloma. Theseintestinal parasites can also cause some gastrointestinal tract problems suchas abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss, malaise, and provocation ofintestinal obstruction or rectal prolapse (WHO, 2016; Hökelek, 2015). In ruminants,worms deprive their hosts such as pigs of nutrients, thus, affecting the growthand feed efficiency. Severe infestation can lead to condemnation and loss ofcarcass value (Jacela, 2009).Throughout the world, the important wormcontrol strategy has been the chemical control of nematodes coupled withimproved management. Yet, the problem in the treatment of parasitic diseases isthe development of resistance in nematodes against conventional anthelmintics (Partapet al.
, 2012). Resistance has arisen to all of the major families of broadspectrum anthelmintics such as the benzimidazoles, levamisole, and the othernicotinic agonists, in addition to the avermectins and milbemycins (Sangter andGill, 1999 cited in Shalaby, 2013). Hence, it is essential to look foralternative anthelmintic.
Papaya (Caricapapaya) has become common in the society for its various contribution tothe field of medicine. It is a giant herbaceous plant resembling a tree but notwoody in the Caricaceae family that originated in Central America and is nowgrown in tropical areas worldwide for its large, sweet, melon-like fruit(Courteau, 2017). In some developing countries, the traditional use of papayais being investigated as an alternative to commercial treatments for a range ofailments. It has been used to treat diabetes, as birth control, as anantiseptic, antimicrobial, or diuretic, to control parasites, reduceinflammation, lower blood pressure, and lower cholesterol. While there are onlylimited data to support most of these uses, there are some evidences forhealing bed sores, and other wounds and in treating intestinal worms in humans(Wolters Kluwer Health, 2009). Certain parts of this plant have been tested fortheir anthelmintic activity. The papaya seeds, be it in powder or aqueousextract, reduced thehelminth eggs positively in infected commercial layers (Ameen et al., 2011).
To further determine theanthelmintic activity of papaya, a decoction of its mature leaves were testedin this study against the gastrointestinal parasites of Philippine native pigs. Statementof the Problem Generally, the study aimed to prove theanthelmintic potential of papaya leaves decoction against gastrointestinalparasites of Philippine native pigs.Specifically,it aimed to answer the following:1.
What is the pre-treatment and post-treatmentegg count per gram?; and2.Is there a difference between the mean totalpercentage reductions of the treatments? Significanceof the StudyThe results of the study would benefit the pigraisers as they may be provided with new, cheaper, and effectiveanthelmintic organic drugs which can keep their animals clean and healthy andas organic as possible. The study may also benefit the papaya growers asthey may produce another use of the said plant making the demand possiblyhigher. This may benefit the societyas new alternative medicine will be introduced.
Lastly, the result would serveas a benchmark information for future researchers. Scopeand Delimitations The study was delimited in proving theanthelmintic potential of papaya leaves decoction against gastrointestinalparasites of Philippine native pigs regardless of their sex. All pigs used were1-4 months old. Fecal analysis through McMaster Floatation and Egg CountingTechnique was utilized as diagnostic procedure to examine the animal feces. The study was conducted at College ofVeterinary Medicine, Pampanga State Agricultural University, Magalang, Pampangaon September 2017. Definition of TermsAnthelminticsrefers to agents used to eradicate intestinal worms(helminthes) from the body (Drugs.
com, 2017).Anthelmintic Resistance refers to the heritable (and therefore genetic) ability of theworm to survive a dose of anthelmintic which would normally be effective. It couldalso be described as ‘drug tolerance’ in worms (SCOPS, 2012).In vitro refers tothe technique of performing a given procedure in a controlled environmentoutside of a living organism (Autoimmunity Research Foundation, 2012).
In vivo refers tothe technique of performing a given procedure inside of a living organism.(Autoimmunity Research Foundation, 2012). REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURETaxonomicClassification Family Name: Caricaceae Scientific Name: Carica papayaCommon Name:Papaya BotanicalDescription Carica papaya or commonly known as Papaya is a huge herbwhich was introduced from America and widely distributed throughout thePhilippines.
It has one erect unbranched trunk. It is a fast-growing tree thatcan reach 3-7 meters in height. The tree is characterized by its large greenleaves that have 7-9 deeply palmate lobes with elongated hollow petiolesconfined in spiral at the top of the trunk.
The trunkand leaves both contain copious white milky latex. The flowers are 5-petalledand are fleshy, waxy, and slightly fragrant. The fruit, in general, hassmooth skin, green when young which turns yellow when ripe. It is indehiscent,subglobose, obovoid, or oblong cylindric.
The fruit is rich in latex when it isunripe or green-colored. As it ripens, it becomes light-deep yellow externally,the thick wall of succulent pulp becomes aromatic and yellow or orange incolor, and contains black seeds coated with a gelatinous and transparent aril(Morton, 1987; Stuart, 2016; Medical Health Guide, 2017).NutritionalContent Carica papaya contains many biologically activecompounds. Papaya leaves, fruit, stem, and roots all containproteolytic enzyme, papaytin, phytokinase, malic acid, and calcium mealeate.
Fresh latex contains chymopapain. Both leaves and fruit yield saccharose,dextrose, levulose, malic acid, and citrates. Carpaine and carposide are onlyfound in the leaves. The fruit also contains papain. Volatile oils are found inthe seeds (Stuart, 2016). Amedium-sized papaya fruit contains macronutrients such as protein,carbohydrates, fats, and dietary fiber, water-soluble vitamins such as vitaminC and B, fat-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin A, D, E, and K, minerals such asCalcium, Chloride, Copper, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium,Selenium, and Sodium, and some amino acids (Mateljan et al., 2017 from The George MateljanFoundation).
According toRashed et al. (2013), extracts of thepolar parts of Papaya through various tests contain triterpenes, carbohydrates,flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. As a whole, its phytochemical compositioninclude unique protein-digesting proteolytic enzymes like Papain and Chymopapain, crytoxanthin,Carposide, Glucosynolates, Benzyl isothiocyanate, papaya oil, Monoterpenoids,Flavonoids, Alkaloids(Aravind etal., 2013). HealthBenefits Papaya is known for its many medicinal usesand health benefits. It contains zeaxanthinin which aids in age-related maculardegeneration.
Papaya also helps in asthma prevention due to its high amount ofcertain nutrients such as beta-carotene. Vitamin K in papaya helps in improvingcalcium absorption resulting to strengthening and rebuilding of bones.Different studies also concluded that papaya aids types 1 and 2 diabetes.Papain, an enzyme in papaya, aids in digestion. The fiber, potassium, andvitamin content of papaya help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Papaya contains a very importantand versatile nutrient called choline which aids bodies in sleep, musclemovement, learning, and memory. It also helps in maintaining cellular membranestructure, aids transmission of nerve impulses, assists in absorption of fats,and reduce chronic inflammation (Ware, 2017).
The rich fiber content ofpapaya lowers the risk of cancer and prevents oxidation of cholesterol.Vitamins A and C help in boosting the body’s immunity (Bora, 2016).Native Pigs Philippine native pigs are distinguished bytheir well-built body, with a coarse, thick, black color coat with a dispersionof silvery white color fur on their sides. Firm fur form at the top of theirhead running down to the central point of the back which is noticeableespecially during breeding season on male pigs when it forms a famous mane overtheir neck and head crest.
The tail of an average length is also covered withthick elongated fur up to its tip which is used to drive away insects and toindicate their mood (Lookseek, 2017).Philippine native pigs have the ability to growand reproduce under adverse conditions. These animals are budget-friendlyespecially to farmers of small scale who cannot aid in buying commercial feedsbecause low-cost production inputs are required in terms of housing andfeeding.
These native animals can become an additional source of income forsmall-scale farmers in rural areas (Brion, 2016). Despite the low maintenance cost of living ofthese pigs, many illnesses may infest the animals as well as parasites.External parasites such as mange mites, lice, and fleas accompany irritationand discomfort to the pigs and may cause parakeratosis. On the other hand,internal parasites such as ascarid, lungworms, whip worms, nodular worms, andround worms may cause death to the host. Meanwhile, herbal plants can act assubstitutes to ease common diseases and illnesses (Esminger, 1970). Suchinfestation may show symptoms through coughing, poor growth, hairiness,vomiting, blood in feces (rare), diarrhea, and distended belly (Sawyer and Cox,2015 from Mini Pig Info). Gastrointestinal ParasitesHelminthsare parasites that live and feed on a living host to be nourished andprotected, while causing nutrient absorption, weakness and disease in the host.
These worms and larvae live in the small intestines and referred to asintestinal parasites (Mandal, 2014). They are grouped according to their shape,and the host organ they inhabit. They develop through egg, larva, and adultstages (Castro, 1996). Major groups of helminths include platyhelminths,acanthocephalins, cestodes, trematodes, and nematodes. Nematode or mostly known as roundworms are known for havinglong thin unsegmented tube-like bodies with anterior mouths and longitudinaldigestive tracts. Their fluid-filled internal body cavity (pseudocoelum) actsas a hydrostatic skeleton providing rigidity.
Worms use longitudinal muscles toproduce a sideways thrashing motion. Adult worms form separate sexes withwell-developed reproductive systems (O’Donoghue, 2010). Intestinal Parasitism Parasitesinhabiting the digestive canal and biliary and urinary systems produce eggs,larvae, or cysts that leave the body of the host by way of feces or urine.
Occasionally even adult parasites may be seen in feces especially when the hosthas enteritis. Parasitic worm eggs or larvae from the lower respiratory systemare usually coughed into the pharynx and swallowed and they as well appear infeces (Sloss and Kemp, 1996 cited by Velasco, 2006). Theseworms deprive their hosts of nutrients such as pigs, thus, affecting the growthand feed efficiency.
Severe infestation can lead to condemnation and loss ofcarcass value (Jacela, 2009). FecalAnalysis Intestinalparasitism can be determined through Fecal Analysis since the parasites live inthe gastrointestianl tract of the host. Fecal analysis is done using amicroscope and can either be in an in-house lab or at an off-site laboratory.The test requires fresh fecal samples. Fecal analysis can be done in two ways -floatation method or centrifugation. Both methods require a mixture of a sampleof a certain mass and a floatation solution which is mostly saturated salt. Thefloatation solution due to its higher specific gravity allows the eggs to floatat the top.
The parasites are then identified under a microscope (GlanbrookVeterinary Services, 2016). Fecal EggCount Reduction Test (FECRT) The mostrecommended method in exploring the anthelmintic potential of a compound is thefecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This is easy to conduct, suitable forruminants, horses, and pigs as well as for all types of anthelmintic. Due tothese, it has already been standardized which allowed its broad use (Sanchez et al., 2002). LevamisoleLevamisoleis an anthelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumaticdisorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasingmacrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immuneenhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis,leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported asside effects (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991).
Levamisole, and pyrantel and morantel, areagonists at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of nematode muscle and causespastic paralysis (Martin, 1997). However, resistance against this drug hasbeen recorded in 1985. A study by Hembry et al., the levamisole treated group in the study had an increaseof EPG from 3 to 483. In the end of the study, EPG of the levamisole treatedgroup increased by 627%.
RELATEDSTUDIESAnthelminticPlants For the developed and developing countries,herbal medicines are in great demand as they may serve for primary health carebecause of their wide biological and medicinal uses, higher safety margins, andless expensive. Henceare traditionally used in various parts of the world to cure different diseases(Kamboj, 2000). From ancient time different plants are known to possesssignificant anthelmintic activity against these invasive types of worms and canbe effectively used in the treatment of worm infections (Tambe and Bhambar,2014). Chaluvarajuet al. (2015)stated that most of the plants which were tested for their anthelminticactivity belong to families such as Schrophularaceae, Fabaceae, Polygonaceae,Capparidaceae, Apocyanaceae, Myrtaceace, Caesalpinaceae, Juglandaceae,Amaranthaceae, Araceae, and Rubiaceae.Anthelmintic plants offer a traditionalalternative to manufacture anthelmintics that is both sustainable andenvironmentally acceptable. Such plants could have a more important role in thefuture control of helminth infections in the tropics (Hammond, Bishop, andFielding, 1997). In most of the cases in in vitro tests, adult earthworms wereused as test organisms in screening the anthelmintic activity of certain plantsdue to the anatomical and physiological resemblance to intestinal roundwormparasite of human beings.
On through survey, it has also been concluded thatmethanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts showed significant anthelminticactivity (Chaluvaraju et al., 2015). Papaya (Carica papaya) as Anthelmintic PlantThree studies have proven the anthelminticactivity of different papaya parts.
Papaya latex has been used in the study ofSatrija et al. (1995) where fivegroups of mice were infected with 100 Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Four (4)groups were treated at dose levels of 2, 4, 6, & 8 g latex per kilogrambodyweight, respectively. One group served as negative control (group A). Atday 25 of the experiment, all animals were necropsied to determine the wormcounts. The latex exhibited an anthelmintic efficacy reducing the count by55.5, 60.3, 67.
9 and 84.5% in groups B, C, D and E, respectively. The potentialrole of papaya latex as an anthelmitic plant against patent intestinalnematodes of mammalian hosts is suggested.
Thus, papaya latex was used byNansen et al. (1994) to determinewhether it can be an alernative anthelmintic to 16 naturally infected pigs.Four (4) treatment groups were observed but only 3 groups were administeredwith papaya latex at dose level of 2, 4, and 8 g latex per kilogram bodyweightand 1 group served as untreated group. Results exhibited reductions at 39.
5,80.1 and 100% in groups B, C, and D, respectively. It was observed that thegroup that was given the highest dose experienced mild diarrhea. Otherwise, noclinical and pathological changes were observed in treated animals. The laststudy by Ameen et al.
(2012) assessedthe anthelminthic potential of papaya leaves crude and aqueous extracts in 40naturally infected Isa Brown commercial layers. The birds were randonly groupedinto 4 with 1 group (group A) being untreated. Blood and fecal samples werecollected 2 weeks after the treatment to evaluate for hematological values andfecal egg counts, respectively. The two extracts showed a significant increasein packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, lymphocytecounts and a significant decrease in eosinophil counts. Fecal egg count significantlydrecreased but it was more pronounced with the aqueous extract. AnthelminticPhytochemical Components Different preliminaryphytochemical tests prior to anthelmintic tests of several plants suggest thatit may be flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, orglycocides which are responsible for the anthelmintic effect of the plants. In the studies of Das et al. (2011) and Ranjan (2013), the tannins of Tamarind produceanthelminitic actitvities as they bind to free proteins in the GI tract of hostanimals or glycoprotein on the cuticle of the parasite thereby cause deaths.
These compounds are known to be biologically active and therefore aidthe antimicrobial activity. Tannins have been found to form irreversiblecomplexes with highly rich protein resulting in the inhibition of cell proteinsynthesis. Tannins are known to react with protein to provide difficult tanningeffect which is important for the treatment of influenced or ulcerated tissues.Herbs that have tannins have the main component astringen which are used fortreating intestinal disorder such as diarrhea and dysentery.A study to support this is conducted byPrevot et al. (2003) in France whichmade use of condensed tannins as anthelmintic to goat that were infested withadult Haemonchuscontortus. Theadministration of tannins was associated with a significant decrease in eggexcretion in the fecal samples of the test animals, which persisted until theend of experiment.
According to McCarry et al. (2001),a more specific compound is present in papaya that is responsible for itsanthelmintic potential. The papaya extract contain benzyl isothiocyanate thatis predominantly or solely inhibits energy metabolism and affects the motoractivity of the parasites that makes it anthelmintic.
Literature Synthesis Different plants have been tested for their anthelmintic activities.Papaya leaves, due to them being easily accessible, have been tested repeatedlyusing different test organisms. In the aforementioned studies which involvedthe plant, all of the tests showed successful results as they can serve asalternative anthelmintic. Different literature say that the plant’s tannincontent (Das et al. 2011 and Ranjan,2013) and the Benzyl isothiocyanate and Papain which Papaya seeds contain (McCarry et al.
,2001) make Papayas an effective anthelmintic. Thus, the researchers wereprompted to extend a research on effective and organic anthelmintic drug onnative pigs.