INTRODUCTION measures the characteristics of the soil before planting

INTRODUCTION TO PRECISION FARMING AND ROLE OF NANOSENSORS IN PRECISION FARMING.SUBMITTED BY : Pranay Ahuja BTMT-8 A1223314005?INTRODUCTIONPrecision farming is a system based on Information and technology which helps in detecting and analysing the variability in agricultural fields for optimum profitability, sustainability and protection of the land. This is done by controlling and monitoring the field application rates such as yield, application rates etc.

about every 3 feet in the field at a low cost. The main objectives of the Precision farming are;? To increase Profitability and Sustainability? To improve Product quality? To conserve water? Effective Pest ManagementPesticides can be applied in only needed areas, for ex : areas of pest infestation, which reduces the amount of pesticide and reduces the harmful effects of pesticides on the environment.The variable factors that are measured with the help of precision faming are;? Pest Population? Moisture Content? Soil Texture? Topography? pHThe 3 main elements of Precision Farming are;? Information? Technology? Decision managementThe components of Precision Farming are;? Planting? Spraying? Crop Scouting? HarvestingTechnologies used in Precision Farming;? GPS: Global Positioning System is a set of 24 satellites that are placed in earth’s orbit to carry out radio signals that are processed by ground’s receiver to determine the position of receiver on earth.? GIS: Geographic Information System is a software that sends, receives and processes data that are spatially distributed.? Remote Sensing : It is a software that measures the characteristics of the field without having contact with the characteristic that is being measured. ? Scouting : This means going through a field and analysing it to determine levels of pest infestation and crop development.

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? Grid Soil Sampling : It involves breaking of land into grids (1-2.5 acres) where soil sampling is done to determine appropriate application rates.? Yield Map : Map for determining the variability in the field.

The map is created using GPS and yield monitor.? Variable Rate Application : It is an equipment that contains controllers used to vary fertilisers, pesticides etc. as measured by the application map using ‘on-the-go sensor’.

‘On the go’ sensors, or soil organic matter measures the characteristics of the soil before planting and adjusting the seed rate. Role of Nanosensors in Precision FamingNanosensors are emerging as a useful tool for applications in food & agriculture industry. They show improved Selectivity, Sensitivity and speed as compared to traditional methods. Nanosensors can have application in determination of microbes, food pollutants etc. It can also be used to monitor environmental stresses and variability. For ex : Moisture level, soil fertility etc. These sensors are also capable of detecting and responding to physicochemical signal and biological signal, and transferring the response into a signal that can be used by humans.

There are many sensors that can be used in Precision Farming;? Sensors for pathogen detection : The sensors are classified into ; a) Direct Methods for Pathogen Detection  b) Indirect Methods for Pathogen Detection.Direct Methods include detection of the pathogen itself whereas Indirect Methods include detection of effect of pathogen on plant behaviour.For ex : a) Immunological Techniques using Antibodies or Antigens   b) Molecular Techniques using Acid based Probes are direct methods, whereas Spectroscopic techniques and Volatile Organic Compounds Detection methods are indirect methods.1.

) Nucleic Acid Based Probes : The genomic DNA is extracted from bacteria with the help of thermal. The Genomic DNA is denatured to obtain a single stranded DNA which is then hybridised using biotinylated single strand to which a capture probe is attached. To this capture probe, streptavidin-magnetic bead is attached. The target DNA is amplified and hybridised and electrodes with immobilised DNA probe is obtained. The Streptavidin-Au nanoparticles are added which attaches to the capture probe of theTarget DNA and confirms presence of analyte.2.) Immunological Technique :  A sandwich model of antigen antibody detection can be used where a capture antibody captures the analyte and the analyte is then attached to a secondary antibody containing biotinylated to which streptavidin coated nanoparticle attaches and confirms the presence of analyte.? MEMS Based Sensor for measuring moisture : The Irrigation Management Systems should have information about soil moisture at root level of plants.

This helps in providing Irrigation Water in an efficient way. Therefore, Microelectromechanical systems based on Nanotechnology can be used which is a collection of micro and nanosensors. These sensors help in sensing the environment and can also react to changes in environment with the help of a circuit control.The MEMS Sensor is based on a shear-stress principle for measuring water vapour in which the microsensor chip combines a wheatstone bridge piezo-resistor circuit to deliver DC voltages that are proportional to relative humidity. A water vapour sensitive nanopolymer film is bonded on a cantilever that expands and contracts when water vapour is exposed.

 CONCLUSIONTherefore, Because of the high surface area of nanoparicles which improves sensitivity, selectivity etc. of  the sensor, Nanosensors are a very handle tool in Precision Farming and these sensos help in identify, analyse & manage variability in a much more efficient manner which increases profit, makes the resource more sustainable and protects the land in a better way.