INTRODUCTION 1. Moshe Dayan was a famous icon of IsraeliMilitary leader and politician.
He was born in May 1915 in. He started hismilitary life at the age of 14 when he joined Haganah the Jewish militaryorganization against Arab attacks. He retired from military at the age of 66and involved in politic 2 year later until his death on 16 October 1981 due toserious heart attack.
2. Duringhis life, he has been involved in seven wars between 1936 until 1973. He was avery experienced military personnel because he rising through lower rank untilhe was appointed as Chief of Staff in Israeli Defence Force. He was a goodnegotiator during Armistice Agreement with which led to a long term peaceagreement with Jordan. The most significant about Moshe Dayan is when he playeda major role in tremendous short time victory in Six Day War. He was also responsiblefor the total failure of Israeli Defence Force in Yom Kippur War. AIM 3.
Theaim of this paper is to explain the positives and negatives traits of MosheDayan as a one of the Israeli top leader and to explore the leadership as alesson learnt in recent modern day warfare and conflict. SCOPE 4. The paper will be divided accordingly tothis scope:a.
Leader background.b. Chosen principle to describe the leader.c. Positive traits.
d. Negative traits.e. Lesson learnt in relation to theprinciples chosen.f. Conclusion.g. Bibliography.
LEADERBACKGROUND 5. Moshe Dayan was an Israeli militaryleader and politician who later became an icon for peace in his country. Heplayed a major role in seven wars and helped negotiate the Israel-Egypt peacetreaty. He was born in 20th May 1915 on Kibbutz Deganya Alef, nearLake Kinneret. His parents is Shemuel and Devorah and he is the youngest son. 6. He was only 14 years old when he firstjoined an arm forces named Haganah, an underground organization which defendedJewish people from Arab attacks. In this organisation, he gain experience in guerrillawarfare from British Captain Charles Orde Wingate.
He was then served with thespecial police force in the Jezreel Valley and Galilee during the riots of1936-1939. He was arrested and being put in prison for two years when theBritish banned the Haganah. When he was released in 1941, he joined the Britisharmy where he served with the forces that liberated Lebanon and Syria fromVichy France during World War II. He was nearly killed during battle in Lebanonand lost his left eye due to fire from a sniper. After that, he began wearingthe black eye patch and later became his trademark. 7. He join forces with British intelligenceto set up a communications network for secret operations forward troops in theevent if the Palestine fell into Germans hands. He remained active in theHaganah until 1948.
After that he was involved in Israel War of Independenceand being put in charged for the defence of Jewish settlements at the JordanValley. He was later appointed as the commander of 89 Battalion whichresponsile for the attacked at the city of Lydda and helped stop the movement ofEgyptian forces to the southern Israel. When he was promoted to be thecommander on the East Jerusalem, he was involved innegotiation of Armistice Agreement with Abdullah el Tell who is a JordanianMilitary Commander of East Jerusalem without acknowledgement of his superior. In 1949, he led the delegation inarmistice talks with Jordanian at Rhodes more than 5 times. Dayan’s militaryskill and experience certified him to be chief of operations at GeneralHeadquarters in 1952. Later with his ability and experience, he was chosen tobe Chief of Staff of the armed forces in 1953. 8.
TheArab nation’s remained aggressive when Dayan became Chief of Staff. There isstill an economic boycott, maritime blockade and supporting terrorism thatagainst the Israeli military armistice agreement on 1949. Due to Israeligovernment at that time was incapable to control the terrorist violence ontheir land, they believes that the appointment for Dayan as Chief of Staff willbring some changes. Moshe Dayan proves his capability when hechanged his military objective to fight an offensive war outside his territory instead of being dragged into a war onIsraeli land. He was prepared the IsraeliDefence Force by strengthened the combat units, raising the intelligence andtraining branch, procured adequate equipment, training the commando andemphasis of strike force. Hewanted to stop the Arab terrorism because in his point of view, the Arabs willbuild up their military strength by taking the advantages on the continuity ofterrorist attacks into Israel land.
He totally change the Israeli fromdefensive force to become an offensive force. The Israeli military launchedraids in Arab country causing heavy and damage casualties to the Arab people.He led Israel on Suez campaign which is an invasion of the Sinai Peninsulaafter Egypt, Syria and Jordan signed a deal to destruct Israel on October1956. 9. Dayan entered political world two yearsafter he left his military career in 1958. He joined Israel’s Labour Party,Mapai, and was elected to the Knesset in 1959.
He was appointed as Minister ofAgriculture from 1959 until 1964. In 1964 under government of David Ben-Gurion.After an argument with new Prime Minister Levi Eshkol, Dayan resigned asMinister of Agriculture and joined Ben-Gurion in forming Rafi (Israel’s WorkersParty). Then again, a year later, Dayan was re-elected to the Knessetrepresenting Rafi, which later he rejoined the Labour Party. 10.
Dayan’s prove his reputation as a greatleader when he was chosen to be a Minister of Defence four days before Six-DayWar started in 1967. Dayan saw the opportunity and weakness of his adversaryand bravely made the decision and ordered to launch a full-scale attack againstthe Arabs. His experience and fair judgment made Israeli succeed in this war ina very short time. He also play a major role in terminated the fighting withArabs by arranging a cease-fire through the UN Observer Corps. After the war ended, Dayan controlled theterritories occupied by the Israeli. He opened the borders for Arab residentsof the territories to travel to Arab countries while maintaining order andsecurity in Israeli land. 11.
Dayan made a demand construction of Yamit,a new Israeli port city in Egyptian territory in 1973. However, Egyptian forcelaunched a surprise attack against Israel before the Yamit progressed and YomKippur War began. Dayan was responsible for total Israeli’s failure on YomKippur War and caused the Israeli incapable to conduct and sustained in thiswar because short of equipment and resource. Israeli still received an attackalthough the cease-fire was declared on October 22. They were not prepared forthe surprise attack and unable to response to it quickly. Dayan was blamed forthis situation and public demanded his resignation. The Supreme Court set up acommission to investigate the failure of Yom Kippur War that led to theresignation of the Chief of Staff. Dayan submitted his resignation in 1974after the press and the public condemned him.
12. Although the debateable situation ofDayan’s performance in the Yom Kippur War in 1977, the new Prime MinisterMenachem Begin gave him an opportunity to lead by appointed him as Minister ofForeign. The Prime Minister Begin believed that Dayan could influence Israel’smoves with his experience and capability towards a peace arrangement withArabs. Dayan began negotiating with the Arabs when they agreed to accept Judea,Samaria and Gaza as an Israeli territory and agreed to return Sinai to Egypt.The negotiation prolonged for 18 months including the secret meetings withofficials from Morocco, Iran, England and India which then lead to a peaceagreement signed on 17 September 1978. 13. Dayan resigned as Foreign Minister in 1979when he upset about the building of settlements in the territories policy andfrustrated because he was not able to join the independence talks with thePalestinians. He also disagree with Prime Minister for not going thru him as aForeign Minister on foreign policy issues.
He later formed the Telem party in1981 and received only two mandates in the subsequent elections. 14. On 14 May1979, Dayan was diagnosed withcolon cancer. He died on 16 October 1981 due to serious heart attack in TelAviv and was buried in Nahalal, the place where he was raised.
CHOSENPRINCIPLE TO DESCRIBE THE LEADER 15. BE-KNOW-DO Leadership Model. TheBe-Know-Do Model of leadership has been introduce by Erick K.
Shinseki who areretired General of United States Army during his appointment as Chief of Staff.It has been published in the United States Army Leadership Manual in year of1999. The framework of this leadership model apply to all the leaders inmilitary no matter what position they are holding. The BE consist of the valueof the leader itself which consist of loyal, duty, selfless, respect, honor,and courage.
This character or attribute of a leader is a basic foundationwhere it show the ability to lead. The meaning of KNOW is a set of skills andknowledge that a leader must have which is interpersonal skill, conceptual skill,technical skill and tactical skill. All of this will be perfected with DO whichis the act of a leader themselves that bring together what they believe andthey know how to do to provide purpose, direction and motivation to their manin achieving preferred goal (Shinseki, 1999). 16. Thismodel of leadership suits perfectly for Moshe Dayan as it is an army conceptualguidance for being a good leader. All ofthe achievement that Dayan had during his life as a political and militaryleader is a proof for other leader to apply this leadership model in whateverappointment they hold. 17. BE.
Moshe Dayan show thecharacter of a leader when he remain loyal to Israeli from the beginning of hismilitary career until he died. He remain duty in service even though he wasnearly killed and lost his left eye. The negotiation in armistice agreement atRhodes show that Dayan was a respectful leader when he honor the treaty thatgives Israel a long term ceased fire with Jordan in 1949. After he was promotedto Chief of Staff, Dayan show the courage to change from a defensive anddiplomatic approach to an offensive military affair. 18. KNOW. His experience andknowledge in guerilla warfare during his service in Haganah military undercovermade him the best candidate to lead the newly establish special force of IsraelDefense Force. The tactical skill shown during Six Day War prove to be thebiggest achievement for Dayan when Israel win a huge victory against Arabcountry in a very short time.
He able to understand both own forces and enemyforces when he order a full-scale air offensive after he detected the adversaryweakness and achieve dominant air supremacy. 19. DO. Moshe Dayan ability toinfluence his subordinate and make them believe that peace can be achieve fortheir country is the reason behind his successful. By doing that, he was ableto motivate his forces to follow his path.
POSITIVETRAITS 20. Opportunist. Moshe Dayan took the initiative to launch a full scale attack against Arabs(Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Lebanon) during Six Day War from 5-10 June1967. The attack was successful within very short time. He carefully planned the war’ strategy, frequentlyrehearsed, and extraordinarily well coordinated pre-emptive attack by theIsraeli Air Force (IAF) on Arabs airfields and aircraft. The plan of attack wasactually conceived four years earlier, in 1963.
The 0745 time-on-target firststrike was chosen due to less alertness after the morning dawn patrols wereover and most pilots and ground crews were breakfasting. It also to give pilotsand crew IAF have enough sleep time and approximately start to work on 0400hwhich is good for down strike. Also, at this time of year the heavy morningmist and completely clear by 0800h considered of the sun angle. During 15minutes before 0800h almost Arab Commander and key personal are on their way towork led great opportunity for IAF to attack (Long,1984). 21. Experience. Moshe Dayan was a commander who had a fantasticknowledge about own force and enemy.
He was rise through lower rank untilbecame Israel Defence Force Chief of Staff. He was experienced militarypersonnel due to involve in battle field since he was 14 years old. He involvein seven wars during his life such as Arab Revolt in Palestine, World War II,Arab-Israel War, Suez Crisis, Six Day War, War of Attrition and Yom Kippur War.With his well experience in many wars he was appointed as Chief of Staff,Southern command, Northern Command and commander of 89th Battalion. 22. Courage.Moshe Dayan was upset after the failure of Israel against Syrian Army.
He dareto changed Israel in to an aggressive force with his commencement as Chief of Staff. Hismilitary objective was to fight an offensive war on enemy territory instead of being dragged into a war onIsraeli land. He was prepared the IsraeliDefence Force by strengthened combat units, raising the intelligence andtraining branch, procured adequate equipment, emphasis of strike force andtraining the commando.
During Six Day War, the timing and tempo achieved in theopening air raids was perfect, with all Israeli aircraft in the first attackwave arriving at ten different Egyptian bases at precisely 0745. This excellenttiming continued with each ensuing attack wave arriving every ten minutes whichresulted Israeli tremendously win the war within six day destroyed almost ArabsCapability. 23. Enthusiasm. Moshe remains loyal and sacrifices to Israelifrom the beginning of his military career until he died. He joined militaryforce at 14 years old and rises through the rank and became the Chief of Staffwhich is highest rank in Israeli Defence Force. He was involved in many warsduring his military service.
He remains his duty in duty even though he wasnearly killed and lost his left eye in one of the battle that he was involved.He served for Israeli about 52 years until he died to make Israel one of themost powerful country in the world. NEGATIVETRAITS 24. Arrogant. Moshe Dayan is a symbol of anarrogant Israeli and over confident in achieving victory in every war heparticipated especially in the Six Day War.
With his attitude and determinationthen led to Israel’s failure in the Yom Kippur War in 1973 (Kumaraswamy,2002). With hisdirective and decision led to the total failure Israel might be affect from hisconfusing predictions and mental health problems from the war that he involved. 25. Stubborn.Moshe Dayan disobeyed an order from his superior over Armistice Agreement. Hewas involved in negotiation with Abdullah el Tell, Jordanian Military Commanderof East Jerusalem without acknowledgement of his superior, Major-General ZviAyalon OC Central Command and found guilty by court-martialled. He was demotedfrom Lieutenant Colonel to Major rank. This not prevents him from attending thearmistice negotiations on Rhodes.
Finally, he was appointed head of all Israeli delegations to the Mixed Armistice Commission meetings. LESSONLEARNT IN RELATION TO THE PRINCIPLES CHOSEN 26. MosheDayan self belonging to his country is a recipe of successful in his militaryand political career. His leadership attribute can be adapted to our RMAFofficer to be implement. As a RMAF Officer, we should take Moshe Dayan as anexample which he always place service ahead of his own self interests in manyways. Service before self does not mean you stop taking care of your families.
Our families are a critical element of the Air Force family. Our service shouldenhance their health; morale and welfare not take away from it. While Air Forceduties take up a large chunk of our time, we must take every opportunity tospend time with our families and involve ourselves in their lives too. Thisprinciple of service before self also does not mean we as RMAF Officer shouldnot pursue higher education, participate in off-duty activities or pursuepersonal and professional development.
The Air Force desires well-rounded officerwho are physically, mentally and spiritually grounded. It is beneficial whenthese extra-curricular pursuits align with service and mission requirements. CONCLUSION 27. Asa conclusion, Moshe Dayan was one of the greatest military leaders in a world ofincessant small wars since World War II. He was not perfect, but no otherIsraeli was more responsible for bringing Israel through all its perils on thebrink of destruction to its present opportunity for peace through strength. 28. Lovehim or hate him, Dayan has shown the great achievement qualities during his career.Who else in Israel history has shown such courage, determination, leadership,patriotism and vision? The great confidence and physical strength that drovehim apparently also gave him a self-destructive feeling of invincibility.
Leaderor ruler of an army or country needs to have democratic and diplomacy relationswith its area countries. This couldassist in developing its country from the social, economy and politicperspective while ensuring foreign investors invest in their country. However, Moshe Dayan being a self-centredperson which did not care about this perspective.
He change Israeli Defence force approach withits own perspective. 29. AlthoughIsrael was a small country initially. Dayan has transformed it to the power fullmilitary, he ensures his country is safe, strong and respected by others.
Dayandoes this by concentrating strengthen Israel Defence Force. 30. In Israeli history, Dayan stands tall asone of the most important military and political figures to grace the nation.Despite his controversial nature, Dayan performed tasks not only as a militaryleader, but as a statesman as well.
Not only he did help a young Israelestablish its independence and safety at one point in his career, but he latertook on the task of guiding the still fledging nation during a very tumultuoustime period. Though not every Israeli citizen, or world citizen for thatmatter, agrees that Dayan made the right decisions, one thing is certain: hemade the decisions that he did without hesitance and with his nation’s bestinterests at heart. (3073Words)