on job satisfaction are two significant variables in human resources management.
It is studied that emotional intelligence is associated on how employees cope
with dynamic change in within business organisations. The purpose of this
report is to evaluate and review the relationship between emotional
intelligence and job satisfaction, and to determine the effect of emotional
intelligence that plays on job satisfaction. In order to progress and cultivate
this topic, the following research question will be addressed: To what extent does emotional intelligence
factors can affect an employee?
For an organisation to
be successful, it is important to develop employee’s emotional intelligence
abilities to work effectively in within the organisation. As well as, employees
job satisfaction leads to the increase of positive environment in the
organisation. Therefore, addressing the issue of the importance of emotional
intelligence on job satisfaction will help organisations to develop human
interactions, which it has become an important aspect of working relationships.
According to the
‘Models of Intelligence’ by Meyer and Salovey, they describe emotional
intelligence as to be: “The ability to perceive an express emotion, assimilate
emotion in thought, understand and reason, and regulate emotion in the self and
others”. (Meyer and Salovey, 1997). Emotional intelligence gives understanding
of the ability to evaluate, analyse and manage emotions effectively. The report
will discuss on emotional intelligence and its importance that could be
applicable for managers, as it plays a relation between managers and employees
in organisations of today. Job satisfaction have the same importance as
emotional intelligence, this is because job satisfaction is a concept that
explains the attitudes and approaches of a worker towards all the aspect of
their work. According to Herzberg, he introduced the ‘Two-Factor Theory’ also
called the ‘Motivation-Hygiene Theory’, which focuses on factors that cause job
satisfaction and other factors that cause dissatisfaction at the workplace.
Herzberg’s idea was to discover the correlation between employees satisfaction
and employees motivation at the workplace. The two factors that he developed
are: Hygiene factors and Motivation factors. The hygiene factors are required
to make sure employees do not become dissatisfied and unhappy at work, whereas,
the motivation factors are essential in order to maintain employee’s motivation
into higher performance at work. Herzberg argued that: “Factors causing
satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings
cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another”. (Chartered Management
Institute, 2012). Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory should be used as a tool or
device for managers to understand and recognise all the motivational factors
that could influence an organisation into a successful path. Also, the report
will attempt to recommend and suggests factors that will promote and maintain
job satisfactions at all times in organisations, as it is fundamental in
keeping employees engaged, and of course, keeping high productivity from
Over the past years,
there have been many researches on emotional intelligence and job satisfaction,
for example, from a research conducted by Nahid, suggested that: “There is a positive significant relationship
between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, between emotional
intelligence and organizational commitment, and between job satisfaction and
organizational commitment”. (Nahid,2012).
Having a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and job
satisfaction plays a significant role in organisations. If
organisations employ workers who have high emotional intelligence, it is more
likely to have positive impacts, such as balancing work tasks with organisations
demands, in order to diminish work struggles and conflicts. Findings and
analysis shows that there are effects and relations in emotional intelligence
on job satisfaction. According to academics sources, it is argued that:
“Employees with high trait emotional intelligence are more likely to be
satisfied with their jobs because they are better able to appraise and regulate
their own emotions than employees with low trait emotional intelligence”.
(Konstantinos Kafetsios, 2008). Furthermore, a psychology professor argues
that: “individuals who are proficient in appraising emotions may experience a
higher sense of vigour and personal efficacy; those who are optimistic and able
to regulate their moods and those who are skilful in social settings tend to
enjoy elevated levels of most components of happiness”. (Platsidou, 2010). This suggests that in a working environment,
employees that have high features of emotional intelligence may be better at
identifying feelings such as pressure and stress, and may be able to control
those feelings in order to reduce stress, however, employees that have lower
features of emotional intelligence are less likely to be aware of their
feelings and are not able to cope with difficult situations, and therefore it
increases stress and decrease their level of job satisfaction.
The first variable
being articulated in this report is emotional intelligence, the author Daniel
Goleman outlines emotional intelligence as: “Understanding, one’s own feelings,
empathy for the feelings of others and the regulation of emotion in a way that
enhances living”. (Goleman, 1995). With Goleman’s model of intelligence, he
represents five domains, which are: “1. Emotional self-awareness, 2.
Motivation, 3. Self-regulation, 4. Empathy and 5. Social Skills”. (Goleman,
1995). Firstly, emotional self-awareness talks about knowing your emotions and
accurately assessing your own emotions, secondly, motivation talks about
self-management of your emotions and utilizing emotional factors to achieve goals.
Thirdly, Goleman review self-regulation as recognising and understanding
emotions of other people. Fourthly, is empathy which describes of sensing and
connecting with the emotions of other people. Lastly, social skills signify the
need of managing relationships with other people and inspiring others.
Going further, the
second variable articulated in the report is job satisfaction. In
organisational behaviour, job satisfaction refers to the extent in which an
employee feels about their jobs, whether positively or negatively. It involves
the general attitude of an employee towards their job, which will indicate
whether the employee is satisfied or not with his or her job. High job
satisfaction indicates that an employee likes the job responsibilities and
duties; as a result, job satisfaction creates the feelings towards the job.
Whereas, low job satisfaction indicates that an employee dislikes his or her
job tasks, therefore, it leads an employee to express negative attitude towards
their job and experience stress on the job. Different authors give many
definition of job satisfaction; one of the most used definitions is by Locke,
who defines job satisfaction as: “A pleasurable or positive emotional state
resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences”. (Locke, 1976).
According to Paul Spector, defines in his book, titled ‘Job satisfaction:
application, assessment, causes and consequences’ that: “Job satisfaction can
be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation
of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job”. (Spector, 1997). In
addition, as explained by the authors of the book called ‘Essentials od
psychology’, they affirm that: “Job satisfaction has emotional, cognitive and
behavioural components”. (Bernstein & Nash, 2009). These statements and
definitions provides evidence that job satisfaction represents the delight and
achievement that a worker experience in their job, it is an important indicator
as it is connected with organisational performance and outcomes.
Further research from
an article report conducted by the authors, Theophilus Tagoe and Emmanuel
Quarshie, with the theme centred on the relationship between emotional
intelligence and job satisfaction among nurses in Accra-Ghana, advocated a
positive correlation between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction. The
research article specified that: “The observed Pearson correlation coefficient
indicated a significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence and
job satisfaction at 0.05 alpha level (r = .398, p < .05), thus confirming hypothesis 1". (Tagoe and Quarshie, 2016). The research was led among 120 registered general nurses with qualification ranging from university degrees. This research demonstrates an example of evidence that whatever profession an individual may find itself in, it can be determined that emotional intelligence can have a positive correlation with job satisfaction, hence, that because a successful employee has to be able to distinguish, understand, regulate and connect their emotions to create a job satisfaction. Factors affecting emotional intelligence Factors that influence the development of emotional intelligence includes being aware of emotions and feelings, and also to being able to use and express those emotions and feelings in a productive way. For example, employees of today are much more likely to look for jobs that fit their career choice, where passions, desires and talents can be truly expressed by the employee. As the report stated earlier, Peter Salovey and John Meyer identified four factors of emotional intelligence, called: 'The four branch model of Emotional Intelligence', whom illustrates: perceiving emotion, facilitating thought with emotion, understanding emotion and managing emotion, and of which, each represents a focus. Perceiving emotion is the ability to identify emotions on people's faces, facilitating thought with emotion discuss about having the skill to control and regulate emotional information and directly enhance to thinking, understanding emotion describes about the ability to comprehend and embrace emotional information, then, managing emotion directs about having the ability to manage emotions and manage emotional relationships for personal growth. Factors affecting job satisfaction Job satisfaction is considered as a big factor in organisations and in human resources strategies. Different workers have different perceptions and feelings concerning their job satisfaction. The report recognises a number of factors affecting job satisfaction, which consists of: salaries and wages, promotion, feedback, work environment and relationship with colleagues. According to Frederick Herzberg's theory, he describes the factors that make employees satisfied and unsatisfied. Based on the report of an executive coaching website, CO2 Partners, they identify Herzberg's factors associating with job satisfaction, which are: "Achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth". (CO2 Partners, 2013). Herzberg discovered that employees are better satisfied and enjoyed when they obtain achievement, when they are being recognised for good productions, when they are being promoted, when they are being given responsibilities and when they grow and develop new skills, which he identified these types of employees as 'motivators'. Likewise, Herzberg also acknowledged factors associated with job dissatisfaction, which he says are: "Company policies, supervision, relationship with supervisors and peers, work conditions, salary and security". (CO2 Partners, 2013). Frederick Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not opposites as factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction is an important tool in organisations as it measures the performance of workers in within the organisations. From Herzberg's theory, it is studied that in any organisation or workplace, there are factors that can attributed to employee's job satisfaction and other factors are accountable for employee's job dissatisfaction. Implication for managers The study reveals that it is important that managers in organisations focus impacts and factors affecting emotional intelligence on job satisfaction. A manager or a leader of an organisation must be able to acquire knowledge on factors affecting emotional intelligence, in order to have an understanding of employees in the organisations. This is because, if a manager lacks the emotional intelligence to motivate its employees, will cause employees to feel disengaged and unsatisfied at work. Emotional intelligence on job satisfaction provides significant benefits to organisations. For example, managers should be able to persuade and encourage employees, to be able to energise, direct and sustain employee's efforts in the organisation. Also, an effective manager must be able to understand and influence employees to perform challenging tasks, with them aim to influence and lead employees to always perform with high level of commitment, in order to be a good organisational citizen. Having an effective, motivated and satisfied employee in an organisation, managers are more likely to hold on to the most skilful and talented employees, in order to contribute to the success of an organisation. In recommendation, in order to increase the level of motivation of employees, it is necessary for managers to promote and increase motivational levels of employees, through strategic tools. For instance, providing a positive working environment where every employee is valued and their inputs and efforts are being recognised. Another example is, providing reward systems, which could be, offering bonuses, increased salaries and additional time off work. By promoting reward systems, it means that managers recognise employees' hard works, loyalty and the ability to deliver excellent performance, such as providing good customer service. These are all helpful motivational techniques that managers could take on board, to understand approaches to motivation at the workplace, as the elements mentioned above plays a huge part in employee's job satisfaction. Conclusion In conclusion, the objective of this report was to identify impacts of emotional intelligence through job satisfaction. It is studied from the report that employees with high morale and self-esteem leads to high job performance, the same way as employees with low morale and determination leads to poor job performance. The report also helped to gain understanding of the importance to value emotional intelligence in today's organisations, since having the ability and skill to manage feelings and emotions and being able to handle stress at work, it is believed and understood to be important factor for organisational success. In answering the research question: 'To what extent does emotional intelligence factors can affect an employee?', the report shows that emotional intelligence can affect an employee's way of managing behaviour through making personal decisions that will result into achieving positive consequences. Emotional intelligence can help an employee in delivering higher performance when it is used effectively. Emotional intelligence is correlated with employee's productivity, as gives the employee a better social skill to collaborate with others in the team, which allows the employee to recognise their strengths and weaknesses, it allows the employee to incorporating feedbacks from others to improve performance, without taking anything personal and finally, employees with high emotional intelligence are always working towards a specific goal, they work hard for the benefit of knowing that they have completed the task successfully, and which leads to employee job satisfaction.