Intro: the ethical uniformity of direct incest and the

Intro: 196

Disregarding Einstein’s perception that “the distinction
between the past, present and future is only a stubbornly persistent illusion”,
an assumption of the existence of uniformities overtime is plausible. Our
consciousness of uniformity is appropriately described as an assumption since
it utilizes inductive reasoning and can not be proven with scientific method. I concur with the statement, because all new
understanding needs prior simplistic uniformities which provide a foundation
for new knowledge to be based upon. The view that knowledge is completely
random is an oxymoron as it implies there is no knowledge. Hence, some sort of
uniformity where there is a pattern or constancy is necessary for the pursuit
of knowledge. The area of knowledge of ethics, in specific the ethical
uniformity of direct incest and the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights will be analyzed for the purpose of discussion.
Another area of knowledge which will be explored is the arts. This section will
focus on uniformities in plays of literature, which can be be established as
conventions of the dramatic genre. It is important to state that the ways of
knowing of language and imagination play a vital role in these specific areas
of knowledge.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Body 2: Ethics – 237

Why are uniformities essential to
the knowledge of ethical behavior?


There are
some universal moral codes in all cultures, whether highly industrialised
economies or hunter gatherer societies. One uniformity which seems to be
prevalent amongst all of these is the taboo against direct incest i.e. sexual
and reproductive action between a mother and son. The occurrence of this type
of incest is extremely rare and hence it can be considered as a global
uniformity. However, Indirect incest i.e. between cross cousins and parallel
cousins, does occur in some societies and is not considered a global ethical
uniformity. Uniformities
in ethics whether they be pertinent to small societies or globally, contribute significantly
towards the existence of knowledge. The assumption of the existence of these
ethical uniformities help to keep order in societies as well as reducing the
amount of chaos which may occur in the form of violence when these uniformities
are ignored. Knowledge of the taboo of direct incest allows one to question why
it is a uniformity and why it is scorned upon in societies. This curiosity can
lead to knowledge of the biological consequences and dangers of direct incest
such as the increase of autosomal recessive disorders and severe intellectual
deficits in the offspring. Moreover, knowledge of the universal taboo of direct
incest can provide decision support, since ethics can be considered to be about
decisions when one is confronted with different situations or circumstances.





Body 2 Counterargument: 277

Is there a decrease in the
value or knowledge of an ethical uniformity when it is violated?

Another example of an ethical uniformity is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights since there is an
omnipresent conformity regarding the entitlement of all human beings regardless of age, gender, class, religion, and other features. This particular
document was signed in 1948 by the fifty-eight members of the UN which included
the United States of America. In Article three, the document clearly states
that “Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person” ().
However, most states in America still practice capital punishment, otherwise
known as the death penalty. Recently, Trump has expressed his view that the New
York terror suspect Sayfullo Saipov should receive the death penalty. The
president is also considering to send the suspect to Guantanamo Bay. This
practice breaches and violates and ultimately juxtaposes the essential human
right of life which is considered as the existence of an ethical uniformity. This diminishes the once known
uniformity of the article and decreases the value of the right. Assuming that
Trump is familiar and has knowledge of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights, the disregard of the article signifies that his
individual principles or morals differ from the general ethical uniformity. One
could infer that his knowledge of the rights has hindered or altered his
decision regarding the punishment of Sayfullo Saipov, since Trump is only
considering to send him to Guantanamo Bay, an example of an inconclusive
thought. Ultimately, a complete and perfect uniformity in ethics is almost
impossible to achieve whether there is knowledge of the existence or no
assumption or awareness at all.


With art being the
expression of creative skill and imagination, how can the existence of
uniformities be observable in this field?

A play is a form of literature and hence a constituent of the arts. Plays
are categorized in specific dramatic genres depending on the prevalence of
classic dramatic conventions. These conventions within
the genre are assumed to be uniformities because without their constancy
one could not classify plays. For example, A
Woman of No Importance written by Oscar Wilde, is considered to be a strong
representation of a great comedy of manners. Some of the conventions of this
dramatic genre consists of satire that reflects the life of the manners and
ideals of upper class society, comically direct sexual dialogue, and/or a
depiction that love in marriage is tedious. The presence of these dramatic
conventions allows one to identify the specific genre and intention of the
play. Normally the existence of many conventions of a particular genre, makes
the play have more of a dramatic effect on the audience. People can anticipate
or predict the denouement of a play because of their prior knowledge of established
conventions in the genre. If there were to be no classic conventions or
recurring themes, categorization would not be possible and there would be no knowledge
of what actually makes an outstanding or entertaining genre like a comedy of
manners. Therefore, the genre of a comedy of manners
demonstrates that literature is based on uniformities, because the aspects
defined in it are to be known and clear to all the readers, otherwise, knowledge
of literature would be not possible as such.

Two plays that both depict specific conventions of a genre like comically
sexual dialogue are considered to be creative and imaginative because there are
numerous different ways of expressing these conventions. Regardless they are
still uniform in genre.

Body 1 counterargument:

How does society’s mentality
hinder the pursuit of knowledge regarding non-uniform
compositions of literature?

counterargument to uniformities in literature is based on unique authors who
were the first to write about controversial topics which have not been
mentioned before. These authors transform and modify a pattern existed which
existed before. To illustrate, John Cleland of 1748 wrote the novel Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, otherwise known as Fanny
Hill. The novel presents the story of a young woman who is prostitute in
the 17th century, and through a succession of letters she describes
her sexual experiences. The novel is considered to be
first original English prose pornography, and the first pornography to use the form
of the novel”. (). The novel is also known to be one of the most prosecuted
and forbidden in literature. Here, Cleland uphold a unique
perspective and challenges the existing
methods/ uniformities that are used in literature by being the first to write
about the taboo topic which utilises such an unconventional character. Society’s
narrow minded disposition hinders the pursuit of knowledge by banning and
prosecuting the novel, which signifies that is unavailable to most of society. With
the assumption of the existence of uniformities in literature, it is evident
that although they substantially add knowledge, they restrict people from adding knowledge and learning new
perspectives. Even when assessing art which is
subjective, the assumption of the existence of uniformities and patterns influences
our decision because it is a part of society’s subconscious reasoning and


How does language as a way of
knowing support the concept of a simple uniformity? 112

Language itself and the development of language as a way of knowing
could not be possible without uniformities. As determined previously,
uniformities are visible through the categorization of objects, concepts etc. which
although different, express characteristics which are the same. The common noun
“car” represents an assortment of particulars that express some of the same
traits. For example, a Honda and a
Fiat are different in appearance and structure, however both subjects have
wheels, which is considered to be the uniformity amongst cars. Since words in language
seem to be one of the most predominant ways of expressing and sharing knowledge,
uniformities in need to exist so that confusion can be limited.