Inthe last few decades, the rapid industrial development has added enormous loadsof pollutants to our water resources such as rivers, lakes and streams. About70 percent of the Earth’s surface is the water that is the most preciousnatural resource that exists on earth.Water pollution might occur when a body of water is adverselyaffected due to the addition of huge amounts of pollutants to the water system. Humans andother organisms produce wastes product which finally will enter rivers, lakes,oceans and other surface waters. Domesticand Industries waste products produce a variety of compounds might causesdecreasing of dissolved oxygen which is important to support aquatic life.
Themajor concern nowadays is the problems that related to the water pollution, especially indeveloping countries because around 3.2 million children die every year becauseof unsafe drinking water and also poor sanitation (Amir, 2016). The pollutionissues are become serious concern especially when the pollutions are involveswith the released of chemicals into our environment and disrupt the balanceecosystem, threatening human health and polluting the water resources.
Thus, steroidhormone is one of the chemicals that released continuously by human and animalinto the environment and causing many bad effect to the ecosystem ( Lintelmann et al., 2003; Drewes and Shore, 2001; Shore andShemesh, 2003).Endocrinedisruptive compounds (ECDs) are a group of chemical that have the higher potential to the carcinogenic threats to the humanpopulation and also their ability tointerfere with hormonal system (Omar etal., 2016). The sources of the ECDs are from the industrial chemicals andhousehold products that such as synthetic hormones, polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceuticals, and pesticides.
These ECDs arefound in a high variety of products that are used in our daily life such asdetergent, personal care products and pharmaceutical. Therefore, without realizing it humans arekeep discharges these exogenous pollutants every day into our environment. Theseproducts that contain ECDs will be flow out into drain, wastewater treatmentplant and finally back into our water resource which is river and causesthreats to the safety of the aquatic and human environment. The main causeof concern with the EDCs is their high tendency to accumulate in human and alsoaquatic life that will cause the feminization and also infertility problems. Atcertain doses the EDCs can interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking andblocking the natural hormone (Komesli et al.
, 2015). Thus, the receptor are blocked and cannot be activated, even thenatural hormone are present. EDCs are the chemical that are suspected to berelated with altered of the reproduction function of female and also male (WHO,2017). The effect from these problems, there are many cases of infertilityfaced by couples especially in Sabah. Due to this problem, high number of fertilityservices, fertility specialist Clinic and Fertility and Reproductive ResearchCentre are found in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Based on the previous studied, the studyabout ECDs are still lack of information because of their trace amountdetection is still low. Twogroups of sex steroid hormones will be studied in these researches which areprogestogen (progesterone) and estrogenic (Estrone).
Progesterone and estrogenare the primary female sex hormone that is important to regulate growth,differentiation, and also maintain the function of female reproductive tissues (Jeon, Hwang, & Choi, 2016). Concentration of estrogen is higherjust before ovulation and progesterone after the ovulation. If pregnancy doesnot occur the levels of these hormones start to fall about seven days afterovulation. Progesterone is important to maintain the lining of the endometrium,if the level of progesterone is decreasing it means that the endometrium is notlonger to be maintained and the menstruation will occurs. Female usually excretes progesterone and estrogen hormone duringthe menstruation and also during the pregnancy directly into the sewage system.
Moreover, the higher number of population in Kota Kinabalu contributes to thelarge amount concentration of the progesterone and estrogen by female duringthe pregnancy and menstruation period. The widely used of thecontraceptive pills in order to control pregnancy also contributing the steroidhormone into the water system because a large number of women nowadays are usedthis method in order to prevent pregnancy and also this pill is easily to getat the pharmaceutical stores. The contraceptive pills contain oestrogen orprogesterone in order to inhibit the production of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) to stops eggs maturing in the ovaries. Women that are taking thecontraceptive pills in their daily days will excrete the hormone through theurine.
Thus, after leaving the body, these hormones are discharged into theriver through the sewage treatment plant and causing disruption to the humanand animal reproduction system. Wastewatertreatment plants are known as a system that treats our wastewater and recycled backto our water resource which is usually the river water. There are several typesof wastewater treatment plant in Malaysia which are namely Imhoff tank.
Oxidationtank, mechanical tank and network pump stations. In Malaysia, the major type ofwastewater treatment plant is mechanical plants and this public type oftreatment plant operates by using the mechanical equipment which is to fasterthe sewage break down. The main sources of the influent in wastewater treatmentplant are originated from toilets, kitchen and laundry.
The discharged of thedomestic wastewater contain various type of harmful chemical from the detergentused for laundry, healthcare products, cosmetic products and pharmaceuticalthat finally will accumulate in the sewage system from all houses. However, theoutlet from the wastewater treatment plant might still contain the conservativepollutant that tends to be stable, long-lived compounds that persist within theenvironment. These types of pollutant are not subject to the bacteria attack,but are reactive in various way with living things such as human and animalthat causing the harmful effect (Geert, 2002) Hence, for assessing the steroidhormone pollutants in WWTPs, it is important to determine their potentialpathways from the point when humans and animals release them up to the pointwhen they end up in different environmental compartments (Mehdi, 2017). Inconclusion, a certain amount of the progesterone and estrogen hormone could bedetected in the influent, effluent and also the discharged of wastewater treatmentplant into the water system. Thus, by carried out this research about thesteroid hormone, the results from this research hopefully can give some awarenessand extra information about the harmful effect of the exposure to the highconcentration of steroid hormone in the environment. Hence, it can provide somemitigation measure to overcome this problem in the future for the public safety.Lastly, in the future, hopefully the high level students are more interested tofurther this research about the steroid hormone in the environment so thatpeople can get more information about these harmful chemicals that causing manybad health effects.