In basophilic hypersensitivity and cellular immune response in chickens

In Pakistan poultry sector is one of the
greatest systematic and dazzling section of agriculture industry. This sector
develops services and income for about 1.5 million people. As poultry farming
is a leading industry and it now contest 40% of total meat consumption.

With this progression in poultry
industry this sector has faced many threats such as feed, water and disease
related problems (Ahmad, 2013)

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Mycotoxins are toxic secondry
metabolites of moulds that are produced in stored feed. Production of fungus
and mycotoxins begin in the crop during transportation and storage. Mycotoxins
production is affected by season, loction, cultivation, draught and time of

Ochratoxins are very damaging for health
and performance of birds astheyhave pathological and immune toxic effects.
Ochratoxin contaminated feed intake lead to discoloration of feet and beak,
enlarged liver and swollen kidneys in chickens. Bursa exposed to Ochratoxin
exhibit low no. of mitotic cells and lymphofollicular depletion (Santin et
al., 2002)

Ochratoxin induce immunosuppression
which results in more susceptibility of birds to infectious diseases. This
results in more economic losses in terms of low production and more expenditure
on medication. Various substances like aluminosilicate and clay bentonite are
being used to reduce the toxic effects of Ochratoxin in birds. For example use
of clay bentonite to ameliorate Ochratoxin effect in chickens show no
significant results when it is used above limit it causes
immunosuppression(Khatoon et al., 2017).

is a filamentous and microscopic blue green algae,  grown organically in specialized ponds
containing alkaline water. Spirulina is used as food because it is rich source
of protein, vitamin, calcium and iron (Pugazhendi, 2015).


Spirulina has shown positive effects on
growth, bursa weight.It also  improved
cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity and cellular immune response in chickens
effected with Aflatoxins (Raju, 2004).

 Aflatoxin leave negative effects on body
weight and lymphoid organs weight such as spleen, bursa and thymus which are
eliminated by using Spirulina as supplemented diet in chickens (Raju et al.,
2005). Spirulina enhances phagocytic activity and also no. of SRBC per
phagocytic macrophages. Spirulina as supplemented food elevates macrophage phagocytic
acyivity, metabolic pathway and immunity against diseases in chickens (Hamad et
al., 2001).

Current study has been designed to
investigate the immune modulatory effect of Spirulina PlatensisagainstOchratoxin
induced immunotoxicity in broilers.Theobjectives of the study are as


1. To investigatetoxic effects of
Ochratoxin A on immune status of birds.

2. To investigate histopathological
alterations induced by ochratoxin A in immune organs like bursa, spleen and

3. To investigate  modulatory effects of spirulina against
Ochratoxin induced imunotoxicity in broilers.

of Literature


et al. (2011) planned a study to investigate the effect of Ochratoxin A
contaminated diet on immunity of White Leghorn chicks. For this, they divided
three hundred and fifty chicks into five groups named A-E. FOR Twenty one days
Group A was kept as control, while group B, C, D and E were kept on different
levels of Ochratoxin contaminated feed as 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg /kg
respectively. Fourteen and sixteen day old chicks were taken from randomly and
slaughtered to examine the
lymphoproliferative responses to intradermally-administered T-cell mitogen,
phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). Abdominal macrophages of 30-days old chicks were
collected and analyzed for determination of their phagocytic potential and
nitrite production. After 7 and 14 days of primary and booster dose of antigen
IgG and IgM, antibodies titers against Sheep RBCs were determined. Results from
this study presented low relative weight of bursa of Fabricius in chicks who
were fed on Ochratoxin contaminated feed for 21 days than the control ones.
Carbon clearance was performed to determine the Phagocytic function of
reticuloendothelial system and found low lymphoproliferative response to PHA-P
in chicks fed on OTA contaminated diet. Chicks which were kept on OTA feed
showed lower abdominal macrophages, nitrite production in cells and total
antibody (IgG).


al. (2015) studied the value of 3 adsorbents, inorganic, organic and mixed
with enzymes addition to emeliorate the toxic effect of Ochratoxin. For 21 days
broilers were fed on diet having 2 mg/kg Ochratoxin and supplemented with
adsorbents at dose of 2mg/kg. Feed containing 2mg/kg OTA led to decreased body
weight gain, increased FCR and tempted histopathological variations in liver
and kidneys. Negative effects of OTA on Broiler performance reduced by organic,
inorganic and mixed adsorbents. Increase in body weight was observed inchicks
fed on adsorbent supplemented feed. OTA induced histopathological changes which
were reduced by using adsorbents.



al. (2017) proposed a study to determine the effect of OTA on humoral
immune response ND vacccintaed chicks, histology of bursa, liver, kidney. OTA
exposed birds showed reduced humoral immunity no of mitotic cells in bursa
increased increased relative body weight gain. Microscopically there was
hepatocyte vacuolation and megalocytosis hyperplasia of biliary epithelium.The
kidneys showed

of the renal proximal tubular epithelium, with thickening of the glomerular
basement membrane.