Howto write a reference / bibliography for a research paper Referencesand bibliographies Thisbrief study guide is designed to help you understand why you should includereferences / references in the sources of information you use to support yourwriting during the research work. Explain the basic principles of precisereference of these sources in your work. Later on, I will talk about the formatof reference citations for a research paper.Whenyou’re scripting a research paper or some other structure of academic writing,your opinion and thoughts certainly draw on those of other analytical writers.
Itis important to identify your credit with sources of information, research andideas about your sources and prepare them in full with the full details ofthese sources in your work. The reference to your work allows the reader to:•Separate ideas and discoveries of people who have been expelled from others;•Read ideas and facts about it in more detailBefore writingWhenever you read or research material for your writing, be sure to include complete details of the publication of any relevant text you read in your notes, or in any photocopied material. These particulars should contain:• surname (s) and initials (s) of the writer (s).
• the date of journal.• the heading of the content.• if it is a document, the newspaper title and the volume number• if it is a chapter of a modified book, the title and publisher (s) of the bookthe publisher and the place of publication• the numbers of the first and last page if it is an article of a magazine or of a chapter of a modified book.For particularly important points or parts of text that you want to mention word by word, include the specific reference to the page in the footnotes.Later we will look at some examples to make it clear to researchers. Quoting sources in a research paperWhat’s an appointment?In research and writing, an appointment is a brief reference to a published source of information, providing sufficient bibliographic details to allow the reader to locate a copy of the source (if copies exist). An appointment that does not provide the minimum amount of information is considered incomplete.
The quotations found in printed and electronic documents are not always correct, since they may contain incorrect information, which makes it impossible for the researcher to identify the original source. The elements included in an appointment depend on the format of the material mentioned (book, article, electronic document, etc.).Quoting booksA quote from the book can be distinguished from an article citation for the presence of 1) place of publication and 2) publisher. Furthermore, the publication date of a book is usually referred to as the year, rather than the month and year, as might be the case with a periodic publication number.
Example: Klotzko, Arlene J., ed. The cloning manual. New York: Oxford UP, 2001.Quotes on the magazineThe titles of the periodicals are generally abbreviated according to the List of abbreviations of the words of the titles managed by the ISSN International Center.For reference in the text, use parentheses and list the author (s) based on the last name followed by the year of publication.
(Author (s) Year)For articles with 2 authors, the names are separated by a comma in the final reference, but by “and” in the reference in the text.Mazan MR, Hoffman AM. 2001. Effects of albuterol aerosol on physiological responses to exercise in standard varieties. Am J Vet Res. 62 (11): 1812-1817.(Mazan and Hoffman 2001)For articles with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the final reference; in the reference in the text, it lists only the first, followed by “et al.
“Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to train patients with heart failure. J Card Fail. 9 (1): 49-58.(Smart et al., 2003) Citing articlesAn appointment for an article published in a periodical publication (journal, journal or academic journal) can be distinguished from a bibliographic citation by the presence of 1) the title of the article, 2) the title of the magazine, 3) the volume number and 4) page numbers included.
Example: Wara, Michael W. ” Permanent conditions linked to those of El Nino through the hottest era “. Science 309 (2005): 758-762.A quotation of a work (essay, article, history, poetry, etc.) Published in a work or a collective anthology can be distinguished from a bibliographic citation by the presence of 1) the title of the article in addition to the title of the book and 2) inclusive Page numbers; and an appointment for a newspaper article with the presence of 1) place of publication and 2) publisher.
Example: Loughran, James N. “Reasons to be honest”. The value of justice: essays on the theory and practice of social virtues. Ed. Charles A. Kelbley. New York: Fordham UP, 1979.
39-57.Appointment style Unfortunately for the student, there is no single standardized format for appointments. Different forms have evolved through use in specific disciplines. The three most commonly used dating styles have been developed by the Modern Language Association (MLA) for use in the humanities, the American Psychological Association (APA) for use in the social sciences and the Chicago Manual of Style, preferred by many writers. .
The following quotes, which represent the same book, illustrate the differences between the three styles: MLA style:Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. The origins reconsidered: looking for what makes us human. New York: Doubleday, 1992.APA style:Leakey, R. and Lewin, R. (1992). Reconsidered origins: looking for what makes us human.
New York: Doubleday.The Chicago style manual:Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. The origins reconsidered: looking for what makes us human. New York, Doubleday, 1992.
This be deficient in of standardization can build life complicated for the student. If you are writing a research paper for a given course, the teacher may require that you use a specific appointment style for the assignment. Read the course program carefully: if the style of the appointments is not specified in the curriculum, ask your instructor before investing time and effort in the format of your notes and your bibliography. If you can choose an appointment style, once you have made a decision, make sure you keep the same style throughout the document.
Your instructor expects consistency and can count any inconsistency towards you. finallyWhichever reference system you use, you should check carefully to make sure that:• has included in its list of references / bibliography, footnotes or closing notes full details of all the sources referred to in its text;• used punctuation and formatting of text, such as italics, uppercaseand bold text, consistently in their reference lists or footnotes.