History has witnessed to plenty of genocides. As far asI am concerned, people can be divided into two different types. The affecting, and the affected.
Those who are affected, they may or maynot have a role in these incidents. From my standpoint, they are usually innocent people. For the “affecting”, there is always a cause. Such as national, religional, cultural, ethnic, racial, political…Nevertheless, the “affected” people are being judged because of the reasons they cannot control. Because of their religions, their goverments’ issues, their races, they have been destroyed. In other words, anybody who belongs to any national, racial, ethnic or a religious group can be the affected one. We can call this people as victims.
Surely this genocide notion is not only about being destroyed. They are not only harmed bodily but they are harmed mentally as well live by theirselves. Because people do not just live by theirselves in their whole life. People have their families. By this way, even though they do not lose their lives, by losing a member of their families their lives are changing. They are getting harmed mentally.
Genocides have taken many lives so far. Somehow, the term “genocide” has came up after Nazi’s Holocaust World War 2. Needless to say, Nazi’s Holocaust was not the first Holocaust that happened.
However, the term of “Genocide” was not exist until 1944. Human nature has always been tend to killing. We can explain it by one term of realism. “Human is selfish, even a great sinner.” In my opinion, this is the greatest reason of humans’ desire of killing. They always want more and more. More plot of ground.
More domination on more people. As long as human beings exist in this world, surely this kind of incidents will always occur again. We can say that genocides are the follow-up’s of the assimilations. Genocides occur from the failed assimilations. If assimilation does not work on the people or the minorities, genocides have purposes such as the people’s , every kind of ethnic, religious or denominational groups’ physical and cultural liquidations. According to circumstances they can apply one of these two methods.
Physical genocides are usually implemented to the cultural groups that has superiority according to nation-state culture. A typical example for this are the genocides that applied to Jewish people and their culture. There are more bloody genocides in history.
The genocide that Spanish and American applied on to Indians. The population of local people of Arawaks was around eight million when Christopher Colomb set foot on America. After twenty two years, the population was around twenty eight thousand people. The genocide that Germans applied to the people of West African Namibians. Germans went to Namibia for colonisation. And they thought the only way to capture the rich gold and emerald mines is to destroy the local people of Nama and Herero. They destroyed the old, the women, the children.
Only fifteen thousands of people survived out of a hundren and thirty two thousand. The genocide that Denmark implemented to German refugees. At the end, German people were taken into a place that fenced.
Thousands of German people were died because of typhus, enteritis and diarrhea. The genocide that implemented to German people by American and British. After Germany lose the war, American and British bombed the city Dresden.
During the bombardment three thousand and nine hundred high explosive bomb and two hundred thousand napalm bombs were dropped. The greater part of dead people were children and woman. When we consider that a hundred and thirty five thousand people died in the Hiroshima and Nagazaki as a result of atom bombs, in the genocide of Dresden there were two hundred thousand dead people. We can make a inference that genocide was very big. Cultural genocides are the second implementation of the genocides. Cultural genocides are usually applied to the people, ethnic and religious groups that are weak according to nation-state culture.
The basic mechanism is to liquidate the people, ethnic and the religious groups in the nation-state’s religion and culture to the fullest extent. Educational instutions are in the first place, every kind of social instutions has to be demolished. Cultural genocides can also include economy and military. The dominant culture applies the genocidal movements against to the culture that contained within itself. To destroy the ethnic group’s language or their historical ruins, making them feel inferiority complex are the common methods in cultural genocides. Cultural genocides are more painful compared to physical genocides, also takes longer time.
In my opinion, the results are worse than physical genocides. It is the worst thing can happen to the people or any kind of groups. To be forced to leave their existences, identities, and the material and the nonmaterial factors of their society’s nature cannot be equal to any kind of disaster.
For example, the ethnic and cultural genocide that implemented to Turkish people by Greek in western thrace. They made this genocide with the contributions of assimilation. After the treaty that signed at Lausanne, which was about to make a mutual exchange between Turkish and Greek minorities, Greek started a systematic genocide to Turkish people. There is another example of cultural genocide. This genocide was also implemented to Turkish people, by Bulgarians.
Between 1970-1989, Bulgarian government started an assimilation campaigne which was called “Bulgarianisation”, to a million and a half Turkish, Pomak and Gypsy people. The schools which gives education in Turkish, the department of Turkish philology in universities, the mosques, Turkish newspapers were liquidited. The graves were sacked because there were writings on them in Turkish. It was forbidden to wear Turkish traditional clothes.
It was forbidden to circumsize the children and they were controlled in health centers. Because all of these pressure, people had no chance. They immigrated to Turkey from Bulgaria.I want to emphasize one of the recent incident that occured. The crisis in Arakan, one of the state in Myanmar. According to foreign relations of English Parlament’s report about the violence in Myanmar, there is a ethnic cleansing in this area.
And this can be named as a genocide in a roundabout way. An action can be counted as a genocide according to the definition of United Nations’ “…causing bodily or mental harm to members of the group…”. We can say that genocide is not only about harming people bodily, as we analysed in cultural genocide.Aswe see, genocide has been definited in 20th century. It is a new kind of crime that can be punished and prevented. Today’s conditions made the cultural genocides to be implemented easier and faster.
Because the technology has developed, international and intergovernmental level of development has been increased. To name the act of violence as genocides would contradict with the basic idea of the genocides. Because in 20th century, act of violence was more often compared to old times. The violence became more systematic and extensive.
Developing technology leads up to kill lots of people easily. Nevertheless, for genocides or that kind of large scaled actions, technologic weapons or communication speed is not enough. These factors are surely important but they are just one part of the reasons. World Wars, especially World War 2, new kind of killing techniques born.
Industrialised and collective techniques came up. For Weisz, two world wars have created a new culture of violence and killing. It existed before world wars, it is obvious it will be continued. REFERENCES Baybo?a, S. (2017). Siyaset/tarih, ortakl?k/soyk?r?mve utanç.
Istanbul.Bowen, J. R. “The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict.”Lemkin, R. (1944). AxisRule in Occupied Europe.Stanton, G.
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Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.Weitz, E. D. (2003).
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