Henry CunniffeProf. WoodsHist130012-19-2017 The League of Lombardy wasa medieval commercial and military alliance formed in 1167, supported by thePope, to counter the attempts by the Holy Roman Emperors to assert influenceover the Kingdom of Italy and the Roman Catholic Church.The Peace of God Movementwas a medieval ethical movement aimed at preventing some of the civiliancasualties due to the religious sanctions on warfare established in thedoctrine which protected ecclesiastic property as well as women and childrenand other non-combatants. The Diet of Mainz was ameeting of the Estates General of the Holy Roman Empire held in Mainz in 1188. Thismeeting leads to the Third Crusade.Ghibelline supported the HolyRoman Emperor in the conflict between the Holy Roman Empire and the RomanCatholic Church.
Guelph supported the Popein the conflict between the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church. Thisincludes the cities in the League of Lombardy.St. Thomas Aquinas was aDominican friar who combined the theological principles of faith with thephilosophical principles of reason, many believe that he ranked among the mostinfluential thinkers of medieval scholasticism.Eleanor of Aquitaine married an English king givinghim land in France which upset the French kingand contributed to the tension of the Hundred Year’s War.
Clause 61 of Magna Cartawas the clause that allowed for revolt in case of an offense by the king on anyof the aforesaid rights. The clause gave the nobility the power to revolt inthe face of an unjust monarch. The Estates General isthe tricameral legislature of France. The three estates are the nobility, theclergy, and the common folk. The Estates General worked under the provision ofthe king of France.
English Parliament is thebicameral legislature in England created to limit the power of the king and issplit into the House of Lords and the House of Commons Essay 1:TheFirst Crusade originated as the brainchild of the Catholic Pope Urban II andwas announced at the Council of Claremont in Aquitaine in 1095 as a call toarms to reclaim Jerusalem and holy sites like the Church of the Holy Sepulcher whereJesus Christ was crucified and aide the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenusagainst the Shia Muslim Seljuk Turks, who had taken Anatolia after a series ofvictories over the Byzantine Empire including the Battle of Manzikert. Theseevents were recorded by Alexius I’s daughter, Anna Comnena who wrote the storyof her father’s life in her great work, the Alexiad. Jerusalem wascontrolled by the Fatimid Caliphate which was located around Northern Africaand was predominantly Shia Muslim. This led to conflict with Sunni group overtheir interpretations on the succession of the Prophet Mohammed.
Theunderlying motivation for most of European interest in the First Crusade is theindulgence that Pope Urban II offers all who pledge to go crusade which grantseternal salvation to the individual. Immediately following his announcementgroups of Christians across Germany went from village to village murderingJewish people, which was unilaterally frowned upon by Europe’s establishedinstitutions. This route to redemption of sins being in stark contrast toconfiding in a priest during penance. This combined with anti-Islamic sentimentin Europe since recent Islamic expansion, namely on the Iberian Peninsula wherethe Umayyad Caliphate controlled Cordoba until its demise due to infighting andcivil war. Thedesire to join the crusade was so great in Western European Christians thatmany would bankrupt themselves financing the expedition; many would call onclose personal acquaintances for loans or mortgaging properties based on itsoutput known as vifgages.
The firstwave of the First Crusade is known as the People’s Crusade and is the result ofunarmed peasants eager to go on crusade though they are untrained and unarmed.Peter the Hermit called on anybody who would join him on departing before PopeUrban’s August date. Peter and his followers pillaged their way through theByzantine Empire and were finally defeated by Seljuk Turks. The Peace of GodMovement aimed at preventing some of the civilian casualties due to the religioussanctions on warfare established in the doctrine which protected ecclesiasticproperty as well as women and children and other non-combatants.
ThatAugust, the main crusade forces left starting points around Europe torendezvous in Constantinople under the leadership of people like Bohemond of Taranto, Tancred, Godfrey of Bouillon, andBaldwin of Boulogne. The crusaders chose to leave in August because it gavethem time to prepare and August is also the beginning of the harvest, so itwould be easy to stay well supplied on their journey. This was a key factor inthe failure of the People’s Rebellion. They moved through Anatolia, the SeljukTurks believing the threat of crusaders was illegitimate due to the poorlyorganized People’s Crusade. Different crusadingleaders took several cities in the area and often did not return them to theByzantines, despite declaring an oath to Alexius I Comnenus.
The crusaders alsobelieved to find the tip of the spear that give the crusaders divineprotection. Finally, the crusaders set up siege on Jerusalem and successfullyreclaimed the territory for years to follow. Essay 2: Therelationship between the nobility and the monasteries was extremely strong dueto institutionalized practices that kept monasteries deeply involved with theircommunities. A charter is a short document which contains a businesstransaction and were kept on file at monasteries, making locals need to dealthrough the monastery to provide proof of ownership on most of their property.
Nobles would donate land to monasteries to contribute to Christian thinking andmonastic growth and would have family vault, tombs in which members of thatfamily could be put to rest and visited and prayed for by living members of thefamily to help the dead’s souls out of purgatory. This intimate connectionbetween nobles and the monasteries raised suspicion from reformers who believedthat monks should not be swayed by material things and should focus on theirwork and on helping all the believers in their localities. This critique spawneda lot of monastic reform over the next century in different orders across Christendom.Benedictine’sRule was St.
Benedict’s guide to a monastic lifestyle and contained rules formonks and their conduct. The middle ages also saw the establishment of variousmonk orders with the main ones being both Benedictines and Cistercians, which waslater reformed by Bernard of Clairvaux.These groups lived in modesty to undertake the work of God and residing in a cloisterlike the Benedictine monastery in Cluny where scholars resided in solitude likethe Benedictine nun, Hildegard of Bingen who laid the groundwork for researchin natural history. The daily life of a Cistercian monk or nun is based on theunrelenting contemplation of the sacred mysteries revealed in the life andteachings of Jesus Christ and handed down by the church.Mendicantorders included friars like Francis of Assisi, who founded the Franciscans,an order of friars who, similarly to the Benedictine and Cistercian monks, vow tolive in poverty but now in service to society, not toiling away in a cloister.The Dominicans were a contemporary of the Franciscans and an equally reputablegroup of friars. Certain monastic groups would even merge with Protestantismduring the Reformation like the Waldensians, a Swiss monastic group reformed byPeter Waldo.
Other unique religious movements emerging out of Europe during thetime include the Cathars, Christian dualist who draw from Gnostic ideation. The Inquisition was a group ofinstitutions within the administrative organization of the Catholic Churchwhose aim was to remove heresy. It started in twelfth century France to combatreligious sectarianism, specifically in groups like the Cathars and theWaldensians. Impressively, he Inquisition would not end until centuries later,after the Napoleonic Wars sweep across Europe.The several majormonastic orders across Europe would be influential in providing recordedhistory and documented scholarship for generations of Western thinkers. Theologicaland scientific advancements in these monasteries would end up contributing tothe Northern Renaissance as well as the spread of Christianity to all reachesof the globe through active conversion in underdeveloped regions of the world.
Monasteriesalso allowed for the Catholic Church to be embedded in the local communitiesacross Christendom. Essay 3:The tension for theHundred Years War had been mounting since the conquest of England by William ofNormandy in 1066 which inadvertently created a state lying on either side ofthe English Channel. The territory on the European continent that Englandcontrols are coveted by France and England is interested in the Low Countries.Edward III of England’s mother was Isabella of France and was regent queen atthe beginning of his reign. The immediate causes of the Hundred Years War areEdward III of England’s quarrel with Philip V of France for reneging on hispledge to restore a part of England’s territory in France that was taken byCharles IV, as well as England’s attempts to control Flanders, and Philip’ssupport of Scotland against England. Beginning in 1337, EdwardIII of England claimed the title of king of France, a title held by Philip VI.Edward III first attacked France from the Flanders in a small success on landbut defeating a French fleet at the battle of Sluis.
In 1346 he won the Battleof Crécy and besieged Calais, which surrendered to England in 1347. In 1356 theEnglish captured King John II of France. After prolonged negotiations, theTreaty of Brétigny was signed and England received almost all of Aquitaine, aswell as a sizeable payment for the return of the French king. Recalcitrantvassals are lesser lords who are unwilling to operate in accordance with theirking. These successes in addition to the victories at the Battles of Poitiers andare thanks, at least in part, to Edward III’s strategic use of longbows againstthe French soldiers. Power in France devolved fruitlessly among theEstates-General, the French legislature, following the abduction of their king.Eleanor of Aquitaine married an English king giving him land in France whichupset the French king, and peasant revolts began to break out known as theJacquerie Revolt.
The nobility of Gascony was taxed extensively by Edward theBlack Prince and they subsequently appealed to King Charles V, who then recommittedto the war, and by 1373, reclaimed back most of the lost French territory usingfree companies, mercenary armies that would fight on behalf of thir employer. In 1415, Henry V of England defeated France’s premierknight brigade at Agincourt. By 1419 he had subdued Normandy, and with mediationbetween the two, Charles VI recognized Henry V as heir to the crown of France. In1429 Joan of Arc laid siege on Orléans and helped Charles VII be crowned kingof France at Reims. Her capture by the Burgundians and her judicial murderafter extradition to the British did not stop the renewal of French successes. By1450, the French had reconquered most of France and England, battered by theWars of the Roses, made no further acts of aggression against the French.
TheHundred Years War inflicted untold misery on the French countryside and economy.For England, the results of the war were similarly conclusive; England stopped beinga continental power and increasingly sought expansion as a naval power. Therevolt of Ghent was a rebellion by the city of Ghent against the Duchy ofBurgundy that lasted from 1449 until it was squashed by the Burgundians in 1453.The French and theEnglish had starkly different relationships with the royalty, the English kingbeing a figure with power who needs to be limited by a Parliament that acts asa quasi-democratic legislature and the French king being viewed as having theinterest of the people at heart and protecting them from self-interestednobles.