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org.uk/resources/People_power_how_consumer_choice_is_changing_UK_energy_system.pdf13  -www.

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economist.com. 2017. No page title. ONLINEAvailable at: https://www.

economist.com/news/business/21728671-reliable-network-should-not-prove-insurmountable-roadblock-infrastructure-charging. Accessed 11 December 2017.

Tesla | PremiumElectric Sedans and SUVs. 2017. Tesla| Premium Electric Sedans and SUVs. ONLINE Available at: https://www.tesla.com/.Accessed 11 December 2017.Bookmycharge |About.

2017. Bookmycharge| About. ONLINE Available at: https://bookmycharge.com/about.Accessed 11 December 2017.Geindustrialcom. 2017. Geindustrialcom.

Online. 8 December 2017. Available from: http://apps.geindustrial.com/publibrary/checkout/EV-Whitepaper?TNR=WhitePapers|EV-Whitepaper|genericWhat is moreefficient a power plant providing electricity for electric cars or gasolinepowered cars? – Updated 2017 – Quora. 2017.

Whatis more efficient a power plant providing electricity for electric cars orgasoline powered cars? – Updated 2017 – Quora. ONLINE Availableat: https://www.quora.

com/What-is-more-efficient-a-power-plant-providing-electricity-for-electric-cars-or-gasoline-powered-cars. Accessed 07 December 2017.Electrical PowerGeneration from Fossil Fuels. 2017. ElectricalPower Generation from Fossil Fuels.

ONLINE Available at: http://www.mpoweruk.com/fossil_fuels.htm. Accessed 07 December 2017.CO2 – the majorcause of global warming | Time for change. 2017.

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The Guardian. 2017. The rise of electric cars couldleave us with a big battery waste problem | Guardian Sustainable Business | TheGuardian. ONLINE Available at: https://www.

theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/aug/10/electric-cars-big-battery-waste-problem-lithium-recycling. Accessed 06 December 2017.Business Insider.2017. Electric car historytimeline – Business Insider. ONLINE Available at: http://uk.

businessinsider.com/electric-car-history-2017-5/#it-even-had-key-advantages-over-gasoline-and-steam-powered-cars-in-the-early-1900s-yes-thats-right-cars-once-ran-on-steam-2. Accessed 06 December 2017.Chuck’s Toyland.2017. ca. 1903 WOODSElectric Catalog Archives – Chuck’s Toyland.

ONLINE Available at:http://chuckstoyland.com/category/automotive/early-electric-cars/woods/ca-1903-woods-electric-catalog/. Accessed 06 December 2017.Timeline: History ofthe Electric Car .

NOW on PBS. 2017. Timeline:History of the Electric Car . NOW on PBS. ONLINE Available at: http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/223/electric-car-timeline.

html. Accessed 06 December 2017.The World Factbook – World Energy.2017. ONLINE Available at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.

html Accessed02 December 2017.When Will FossilFuels Run Out? – Energy Independence – Ecotricity. 2017. When Will Fossil Fuels Run Out? -Energy Independence – Ecotricity. ONLINE Available at: https://www.ecotricity.co.

uk/our-green-energy/energy-independence/the-end-of-fossil-fuels. Accessed 02 December 2017.References:  In summary having a system of battery charging and swappingwould dramatically improve the consumerism of electric cars and would progressthe range capability to a distance where they can compete with the currentcombustion powered cars. The main issue falls in the funding and cooperation ofsuch a huge amount of companies and governments that the infrastructure won’treach this stage of efficiency for main years, not until fossil fuels have beenfully banned and renewable clean energy can be produced to power wholecountries at a rate that the increase in quantity of cars won’t be overloadingthe national grids.SummaryA key way to progress the way electric cars function is toredefine how the electric batteries are recharged and make it as consumerfriendly and convenient as possible. To achieve this a network ofinfrastructure needs to be developed which focuses on cars which chargewhenever they are stopped and extending the range of the current electricvehicles. To solve these issues the build of electric cars can be altered sothat the battery is a separate entity to the actual cars, this allows for thecars to be sold cheaply and batteries to be rented by the consumers. Using thislayout batteries can be either charged in the times when users aren’t using thecars, such as over night or during working hours, the second option is to havea battery swapping scheme.

This battery swapping has a variety of benefits, thefirst being it creates a quick and convenient way to renew the energy of thecar in a matter of minutes instead of waiting for recharging, as well asextending the range of electric cars. No longer will the cars be restrained byhow far a full battery can last for, now the potential to pull into a carwashstyle building and have the battery swapped for a fully charged one allows foralmost endless range when driving. The issues with this network of publiclyused batteries is implementing the infrastructure, having car manufacturesproduce models of cars which can all accept this new universal removablebattery is a huge problem as many companies like to style and design carsdifferently and are against being the first company to do so. As well as carmanufactures refusing to alter their designs, the infrastructure requires hugeinvestment and change from governments to have enough charging stands by allparking to power the ever-growing number of electric cars and to open enoughbattery swap points. The swap points would also have to be mechanical forsafety and convenience so would be very costly to build, the batteries thatthese stations hold would also have to be mass produced with enough to exceedthe number of cars on the roads. When it comes to the improvement of sustainability,its down to the government and vast cooperation’s to develop more sources ofrenewable clean electricity, this can range from solar and wind farming, totidal and hydropower.

With less fossil fuels being used in large scale energyproduction and less fuels being used in transportation a huge reduction inpollution will occur.AdvancementsCurrently electric vehicles are at the forefront of technologicaladvances and they have the potential to be further developed for so many uses.One huge development being pushed by Tesla is the introduction of driverlesscars which can navigate around cities, change lanes on motorways and self-park,however this onboard computer system will quickly develop over the next fewyears and soon will be able to transport passengers from one side of a countryto the other. Another use of the driverless function is being used in Tesla’ssemi-driverless trucks which are now advanced enough to automatic break andgive lane departure warnings meaning soon we might see convoys of trucks deliveringall types of stock without the need for breaks or sleep. Electric engines alsomake good truck engines because they can generate vast amounts of more torquethan regular engines as so will be able to tow bigger loads. Another potentialdevelopment is in the form of different methods of charging, there have beenideas around having induction chargers built into the roads, so the cars canwirelessly stay topped up, however this causes all sorts of cost andpracticality issues around how they would be installed.

There is also the availabilityfor companies like bookmycharge which allows home owners with electric carchargers to rent out the charging while not in use to other electric carowners.Current developmentThe Level 2 charging stations are the most widely used of thethree which currently means that to recharge a car takes preplanning with whereand when to do it. At the moment there is a huge fear in society nicknamed’Range anxiety’, this first came about in about 2013 when the first electriccars were coming back into production and they all seemed to only have amaximum range of about 13120km which meant motorists would feelconcerned about whether the battery life would last the duration of theirjourney, and this in comparison to regular combustion engines, which would lastaround 13650-800km per tank, meant less people were interested inpurchasing electric cars. However almost 5 years further on and this ‘rangeanxiety’ still bothers consumers even though electric cars have seriouslyadvanced and now have ranges around 500km which is far greater than the averagejourney of most citizens. In time, more people will come to trust electrictransport as a viable alternative to petrol and diesel and this will rapidlytake effect in England and France where by 2040 new cars will be banned as partof a clean air strategy. One large concern for country’s which force fullelectric car usage to quickly is whether the national grid will be able to copewith the increased use, a report written by Green Alliance implies thatmultiple cars charging in the same local area can cause local power dips and iftoo many people are charging at peak times the grid will struggle with thesurges.

A solution to this is to introduce smart chargers and to promotecharging during night so that the load on the grid isn’t too high. This shouldn’tbe an immediate problem yet as it will take many years for the number of electriccars to overtake the quantity of petrol and diesel cars there are at the moment.·       Level 3 charging is for public usage but onlyworks with DC at 480V and 3 phase connections. Due to such a high voltage thecharging can take place within 15 to 30 minutes.

·       Level 2 charging is for public and private useand is to most common type of charging stand. Its powered by 240V AC and takesbetween 4 and 6 hours from a fully depleted battery.·       Level 1 charging is generally used at home andpowered by household 120V AC, it takes over 15 hours to fully charge a car.The main operational requirement forelectric vehicles is the ability to recharge the cells in a convenient manor sothe car is ready to use on demand. To achieve this, numerous charging stands arelocated around a country ranging from house hold stations to rapid chargingpoints, and they fall into 3 different categories:The principals behind how electricvehicles work is relatively simple as shown in figure 5, a source of Alternateor Direct current (AC/DC) is fed into the battery to provide charge, once thebattery has sufficient charge a controller can send electricity to power themotor which drives the car. When using an alternate current, it first must bepassed through an AC to DC converter before it can be stored in the batterycell, additionally when the breaking is enabled some AC power can beregenerated.Operational RequirementsAlthough electric cars seem to be moreefficient in the fuel used to power them in comparison to combustion enginesthere is still the problem with the lithium-ion batteries used.

These are veryhard to dispose of once they reach the end of their life cycle and becausethey’re normally discarded rather than being recycled the finite amount oflithium there is, is being used up rapidly. With the number of electric carssurpassing 2 million already and governments bringing in strict lawsprohibiting the sales of petrol and diesel cars by 2044, a practical solutionfor reusing or disposing the batteries is needed to be developed. Currently therecycling process of lithium-ion batteries can only extract precious metalssuch as Cobalt and Nickle, however its far more difficult to sperate anyLithium from the by-product. This is a major issue as Lithium is the key tobattery manufacture and its not worth the extra costs to extract it, so at thecurrent time full recycling of batteries isn’t possible. There is however otherpossible uses for the batteries which cannot drive an electric car, with around70% of their capacity still available, it makes these used batteries perfectfor being repurposed as home energy stores. When it comes to electric cars thereis no immediate pollution given out from the vehicles, this because they runoff a store of energy rather than producing the energy within the car, however thisdoes not mean electric cars are a sustainable mode of transport. Theelectricity needed to charge the batteries that run the cars must be producedfrom a larger power station, which means large quantities of fossil fuels arestill burnt.

This is still an improvement on the engines of combustion poweredcars because when electricity is produced at a large scale the efficiency isfar greater, so less fuel is waisted in the process. The reason large scaleelectricity production is more efficient is due to greater hot and coldtemperatures of the thermal reservoirs, on average a fossil fuel power plant isabout 35%(Electropedia, Electricitygeneration form fossil fuels) efficient and ‘the electric carefficiency is about 90% and 10% gets lost for power transmission and charging.’ – Quora. 2017.  With all theseefficiencies an electric car comes out with an overall efficiency of 0.

35 x 0.9x 0.9 = 0.

284 which is about 28%, comparing this to the average efficiency ofan internal combustion engine which is around 22%, its 5% more efficient. When it comes to sustainability of cars it’s atough topic to handle, there is currently the huge issue surrounding thedepletion of non-renewable fossil fuels which severally affects our planet andits eco systems.  Petrol and diesel are adistillation of crude oil which is formed from the decay of biological matterover a few million years and is a highly efficient way of fuelling a combustionengine. The downfall of petrol and diesel is the pollution they cause afterbeing ignited within the engine, there are excess fumes produced the biggestbeing Carbon dioxide which is one of the largest contributors to global warming.The high concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere results in less heatbeing able to escape so is reflected to the surface where its increase theoverall temperature. The graphs in figure 3 and 4 show an underlying connectionbetween the amount of Carbon Dioxide being produced on a world-wide scale; howmuch of it is absorbed into the atmosphere and how temperatures have beenrising over the previous years. Due to these increases in temperature, variousdisturbances to the ecosystems have been occurring such as a vast reduction ofthe polar ice caps and an increased sea level which also have had links toincreases in abnormal weather conditions such as hurricanes and storms.Sustainability For over half a century, electricvehicles were forgotten about and few and far between, and the combustionengine dominated the scenes, with the development of diesel power as well, alltransport was driven by the same fuels and concepts.

It was not until the late1900’s that car manufactures were force to revisit the possibility of usingelectric power due to new regulations on emissions being enforced. Inevitablythe realisation of how finite the fuels we had been using were, is whatprompted new companies like Tesla to develop the new era of electric vehicles.Currently Tesla has innovated its way to the forefront of the electric market,however more traditional motor companies such as Ford, Mercedes- Benz andVolkswagen have dramatically increased their research and development ofbattery and electric vehicle production and have started to release competingtechnologies.Electric cars may seem like the technology of the futurehowever their existence has been around for almost 112 years now, initiallyelectric cars had a huge advantage over the alternatives at the time. Theelectric carriages were powered by batteries and were quieter and simper tomanoeuvre and control. This advancement was due to the likes of Thomas Edisonand Nickolas Tesla inventing and refining the applications of both AC and DCcurrent and this in turn was implemented in all sorts of electric vehicle,initially boats and locomotives however by the early 1900’s the first of theelectric cars were being produced. The firstelectric vehicles were developed by companies like, ‘Pope Manufacturing Companyof Connecticut’ and ‘Woods Motor VehicleCompany – Figure 2’ where they claimed that electric transport was the futureof carriages and cars and would be faster and have a large range than anycombustion engine.

Unfortunately, after many advancements in batteries andconstruction, the development and production of electric cars came to an end inthe year of 1916 when Henry Ford mass produces his Model T combustion enginecar to the public. By the year of 1920 Electric cars have ceased to exist dueto a vast availability of petroleum and electric power not supplying suitablerange for transportation. The Fords also stole the market due to affordabilityof the cars, “a roadster priced at about $1,750, whereas a gas-powered car costonly $650.” (- Electriccar history timeline – Business Insider 2017).HistoryAccording to CIA data on average the reserves of crude oilare being used up at rate of 4 billion tonnes a year and this will result inthe world completely running out of oil by 2051 – Figure 1. This is a greatconcern as without proper preparation for this outcome prices of fuel will riseto more than anyone will be able to afford, and this will incur panic formillions who will lose their modes of transport. The most plausible andconvenient solution is to resort to electric cars which will run off batterypower and will be recharged from power generated on a national scale. Figure 1 – Fossil fuel depletionestimate – (Ecotricity.

co.uk, 2017- data gathered form CIA)          However, with an ever-growing population, the demand fortransportation is resulting in increased production of cars for the masses,this in turn is depleting the amounts of crude oil deposits. According to the ‘CIAworld fact data book’ an estimated prediction can be plotted, figure 1 showshow much energy reserve of each raw fossil fuel we have and a prediction of theyear in which we will have drained all supplies. One of the biggest crises of the modern era is the rapiddecline in reserves of fossil fuels, this will have catastrophic effectsglobally as all transport, housing and lighting are still powered bynon-renewable energies.

When it comes to transportation, crude oil has been themain source of fuel to power the various vehicles used each day, petroleum anddiesel are extracted during distillation and are ignited to drive pistons whichpropel each vehicle.IntroductionElectric cars have been around for over 112 years and havereached a peak stage where new advances in technology and infrastructure isfinally allowing the potential for a mass conversion to battery power. Currentlywe’re only a matter of years away from a huge reduction of the widely usedpetrol and diesel cars and below I evaluate the current state of electric carsand how they can be implemented into our current infrastructure as well asinsights into how they can be improved. Sustainability is a key focus as thedepleting amount of finite fossil fuels we have left as well as pollution andclimate change are all affected by the way we generate power and how we driveour transportation.

Changes in how energy is stored and generated could meanelectric cars are the solution to cleaning the emissions of vehicles.SummaryElectriccars and charging infrastructure