Future complete its construction in 2017 but the traditional

Future of ‘Penambang’ ; Before And After BridgeConstruction In Waterfront, Kuching CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Researchintroduction  When theconstruction industry evolve from time to time while great changes transforminto something greater, mankind create innovative methods for the constructiongrowth improve for the occupants and environment. Fromthis overall situation, Golden bridge project was launched on August 2013 andthe public official opening was on November 2017.

Golden bridge is located atWaterfront, Kuching. The bridge is to enable locals and tourist to easilyaccess to both sides of the river. In relation to that, this pedestrian bridgehas become another alternative way for users to cross the river without using ‘penambang’.Apart from that, most users wouldstill want to use the ‘penambang’, in that they function as a faster way to getto and from the city centre.

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Besides that, ‘penambang’ will always be thelegacy of the people of Kuching and the Sarawak River because it reflects thelife and heritage of the Malay community as well as the people living along theriver. 1.2 Background to a study      The Golden Bridge located at Waterfront,Kuching aims to complete its construction in 2017 but the traditional boatmenknown as ‘penambang’ business will be affected as the pedestrian bridgefunction as alternative way to cross the river by walking. At the moment, thebridge has launched its official opening and the traditional boatmen’s concernis the number of users will drop significantly.  1.

3 Statement of the problem l How has the Golden Bridge affected traditional boatmen’s business? 1.4 Rationale for the study    This study will provide insights where the businessof the ‘penambang’ will be affected or not after the completion of GoldenBridge. Furthermore, it will also gives impact to the ‘penambang’ on the amountof users per day. 1.

5 Objective of the study 1.       To track the number of users after the Golden Bridgeis built.2.       To investigate how the Golden Bridge affectstraditional boatmen’s business.

 1.6 Research questions  1. How didthe Golden Bridge affected the ‘penambang’s business ? 2. Whatare the reasons to use the ‘penambang’ after the bridge is built? 3.

Whatare the society’s perceptions towards this traditional boatmen? 4. Whatis the number of average users per day before and after the bridge is          built?   1.7 Significance of the study      Thisstudy would stand to create public awareness on how it affects the traditionalboatmen in many aspects. Also, to provide insights into the concern of theboatmen.  1.8 Definitions of terms 1.       In this study, ‘penambang’ refers to traditional boatmen that works asriver taxi services.2.

       ‘Pedestrian bridge’ is a bridge designedfor pedestrians.              CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1  Introduction    In thischapter, several topics has been outline and review in detail as follow. (1)  An outline of definition of water taxi hasbeen presented to give a clear picture of ‘penambang’. (2) Supply and demand ofpublic transportation towards the society. (3) Definition of pedestrian bridge.(4) Historical background of traditional ‘penambang’ and its development overthe years.

(5) Public perceptions towards the ‘penambang’. 2.2 Water taxi      A water taxi is categorized as publictransportation for locals and tourists and also known as sightseeing boat in anurban environment.

Water taxi’s service is scheduled with multiple stops, itoperates in a similar manner to a bus and taxi because it is on demand. Inrelation to that, the boat operates to many locations and the service ischarged. Water taxi also operates on a schedule.

The earliest water taxiservice was launched around the area in United Kingdom.      This local boat transportlet the users experience the area through sightseeing. Tourismis often the main economic activity of islands, making transport servicesvital. Recent research indicates that direct competition between air and seatransport tends to increase for the leisure market segment (Rigas, 2009).

Besides that, theavailability and perceived quality of local transport at tourist destinationshas latterly been established as exercising an influence on visitor experience,overall satisfaction and repeat visitation (Thompson & Schofield, 2007).     Mobility is an essential part of human life especially incities. Indeed, mobility is perceived as a right especially in large cities indeveloped economies (Albalate & Bel i Queralt, 2010) .

Water taxi alsoact as in which passengers do not travel in their own vehicles.  2.3 Supply and demand of public transportationtowards the society      Whenlooking into the supply and demand of public transportation, users of transportare primarily consuming the service for its direct benefits. Transport demand is about the movement of people and goods inorder to satisfy a need such as work, education and recreation. It can alsotransport goods as part of the overall economic activity.       In economic termsthis is due to the reduction in the price of a commodity, in the transportcontext an increased mobility, results in the lower perceived cost of travel(reduced travel time or delay or improved reliability), hence increase in demand(Charles, 2010). Roadway congestion and in order to reduce the time consume toreach the destination results in the demand of public transportation. Ingeneral it is higher and even more condensed in the morning and evening timeswhile it is sparse in the remaining times of the day.

While the rush hourdemand mainly comes from the workers and students, the remaining demand comesfrom the parties such as shoppers, leisurers and other travelers (Hauer, 1971).  2.4 Pedestrian bridge       According toDictionary of Scientific and Technical Term, pedestrian bridge refers to bridgefor people on foot only. This is the best solution for the pedestrians to crossthe road (Shimogami, 1991) Normallythere are two types of pedestrian bridge such as overhead footbridge andunderpass but in Malaysia, the most common bridge is the overhead.

Therefore,the definition has been referred to a small bridge which are designed and usedsolely for pedestrian use only.   Pedestrianbridges are used for pedestrians to cross busy roads with vehicles but in thisstudy the pedestrian bridge is used to cross the river without using’penambang’. In addition, the pedestrian bridges can be seen as a tool orcrossing facilities the safest and most efficient for pedestrian. Pedestrianbridges that has been provided for the public should be able to attract theattention to use when are crossing. This is why the design of the bridge isimportant because there are a lot of pedestrians often feel reluctant to usethe pedestrian bridges provided by the authorities. Although the time taken bypedestrians using the bridge is less than the time taken using ‘penambang’.

Toensure that pedestrian bridges are provided to give the maximum corresponds tothe users, the pedestrian bridge should be located in strategic areas where theusers do not have to walk far to use it.  2.5 Historical background of traditional’penambang’ and its development over the years      Accordingto Attorney General of Malaysia, ‘penambang’ wasestablished in 1966 at Sarawak river. The service was 5 cents for children and10 cents for adults. Furthermore, It took 5 to 8 minutes to reach to the otherside of the river because the boatmen was only using paddlers instead of outboardengine.

Throughout the years, theservice increased its fare to 30 cents for children and 50 cents for adults. Thetime taken to cross the river was shorten to 2 to 3 minutes depends on thecurrent of the river. 2.6  Publicperceptions towards the ‘penambang’ Peopleprefer travelling by land than using ‘penambang’. Moreover, ‘penambang’ has becomejust merely an iconic symbol in Kuching. 2.7 Summary      Throughoutthe review of literature from this chapter, it can be concluded that pedestrianbridge and water taxi plays a big role in its own part.

Both serves itsfunction for the users. Despite the advancement of technology these days, thereare still some people prefer to use the water taxi instead of crossing thebridge to reduce the time consume and also to sightsee.                                CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY          The research methodology is presentedin this chapter where the specific objective in this research is on therelationships between before and after the bridge construction and its impacttowards the traditional boatmen. 3.

1Research methodology           Research methodology refers to a method usedto conduct a research to collect information. This is where the process used tocollect information and data for the purpose of achieving the objective of theresearch. 3.2Study design             Research design is based on quantitative anddescriptive study, method of collecting data by giving out questionnaires andinterviews. This study design was chosen because it is more suitable forstudies on many individuals and can be more confident with a result. 3.3Study setting          The study of future of ‘penambang’ was done atWaterfront, Kuching district, Sarawak. This study method will give a clear understandingon the concept of ‘penambang’ and how it will give impact on the boatmen’s businessafter the Golden Bridge is built.

          3.4Study population         There are only two types of respondents in this study.Study population was the boatmen and the users at Waterfront, Kuching.3.5Inclusion criteria      1.     The boatmen.

2.     People who used the ‘penambang’.        3.6Instruments         Instruments to be used in this study are data triangulationand methodological triangulation. 3.7Questionnaires           Questionnaires is a specific tool, also knownas instrument, for gathering information (Slattery, et al., 2011).

It was furtherexplained that questionnaires also known to have scale that create quantifiedscore. Questionnaires are the most widely used of methods for collection ofdata. It normally serves many purposes in measuring some aspects of a sociallife phenomenon and gather information in order to test a theory or problemstatement. Questionnaires will be given out to the boatmen and users respectively.     3.8Interviews          An interview is a conversation wherethe questions are asked by the interviewers and answers are given by theinterviewee. It is also known as one-on-one conversation where one person act asthe interviewer and the other act as the interviewee.

The participants taketurn to talk such as the interviewer ask questions and the interviewee answersit. This method were used on boatmen and users of ‘penambang’. 3.9Summary             Methods that have beenmentioned above is to give the idea that one can be more confident with theresult if different methods are used and more data can be collected. This is toget a more accurate result with more data that has been collected by manymethods.

Data triangulation and methodological triangulation will provide sufficientdata on boatmen’s business because two types of respondent were involved. Besidesthat, this method will also increases the credibility and validity of theresults. (Feldman, Altrichter, Posch, & Somekh, 2008) stated that triangulation”gives a more detailed and balanced picture of the situation.