Future complete its construction in 2017 but the traditional

Future of ‘Penambang’ ; Before And After Bridge
Construction In Waterfront, Kuching



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1.1 Research


 When the
construction industry evolve from time to time while great changes transform
into something greater, mankind create innovative methods for the construction
growth improve for the occupants and environment. From
this overall situation, Golden bridge project was launched on August 2013 and
the public official opening was on November 2017. Golden bridge is located at
Waterfront, Kuching. The bridge is to enable locals and tourist to easily
access to both sides of the river. In relation to that, this pedestrian bridge
has become another alternative way for users to cross the river without using ‘penambang’.
Apart from that, most users would
still want to use the ‘penambang’, in that they function as a faster way to get
to and from the city centre. Besides that, ‘penambang’ will always be the
legacy of the people of Kuching and the Sarawak River because it reflects the
life and heritage of the Malay community as well as the people living along the


1.2 Background to a study


     The Golden Bridge located at Waterfront,
Kuching aims to complete its construction in 2017 but the traditional boatmen
known as ‘penambang’ business will be affected as the pedestrian bridge
function as alternative way to cross the river by walking. At the moment, the
bridge has launched its official opening and the traditional boatmen’s concern
is the number of users will drop significantly.


1.3 Statement of the problem


How has the Golden Bridge affected traditional boatmen’s business?


1.4 Rationale for the study


   This study will provide insights where the business
of the ‘penambang’ will be affected or not after the completion of Golden
Bridge. Furthermore, it will also gives impact to the ‘penambang’ on the amount
of users per day.


1.5 Objective of the study


To track the number of users after the Golden Bridge
is built.

To investigate how the Golden Bridge affects
traditional boatmen’s business.


1.6 Research questions


 1. How did
the Golden Bridge affected the ‘penambang’s business ?

 2. What
are the reasons to use the ‘penambang’ after the bridge is built?

 3. What
are the society’s perceptions towards this traditional boatmen?

 4. What
is the number of average users per day before and after the bridge is          built?




1.7 Significance of the study


study would stand to create public awareness on how it affects the traditional
boatmen in many aspects. Also, to provide insights into the concern of the


1.8 Definitions of terms


In this study, ‘penambang’ refers to traditional boatmen that works as
river taxi services.

‘Pedestrian bridge’ is a bridge designed
for pedestrians.



















2.1  Introduction



  In this
chapter, several topics has been outline and review in detail as follow. (1)  An outline of definition of water taxi has
been presented to give a clear picture of ‘penambang’. (2) Supply and demand of
public transportation towards the society. (3) Definition of pedestrian bridge.
(4) Historical background of traditional ‘penambang’ and its development over
the years. (5) Public perceptions towards the ‘penambang’.


Water taxi


     A water taxi is categorized as public
transportation for locals and tourists and also known as sightseeing boat in an
urban environment. Water taxi’s service is scheduled with multiple stops, it
operates in a similar manner to a bus and taxi because it is on demand. In
relation to that, the boat operates to many locations and the service is
charged. Water taxi also operates on a schedule. The earliest water taxi
service was launched around the area in United Kingdom.

     This local boat transport
let the users experience the area through sightseeing. Tourism
is often the main economic activity of islands, making transport services
vital. Recent research indicates that direct competition between air and sea
transport tends to increase for the leisure market segment (Rigas, 2009). Besides that, the
availability and perceived quality of local transport at tourist destinations
has latterly been established as exercising an influence on visitor experience,
overall satisfaction and repeat visitation (Thompson & Schofield, 2007).

     Mobility is an essential part of human life especially in
cities. Indeed, mobility is perceived as a right especially in large cities in
developed economies (Albalate & Bel i Queralt, 2010) . Water taxi also
act as in which passengers do not travel in their own vehicles.


Supply and demand of public transportation
towards the society


looking into the supply and demand of public transportation, users of transport
are primarily consuming the service for its direct benefits. Transport demand is about the movement of people and goods in
order to satisfy a need such as work, education and recreation. It can also
transport goods as part of the overall economic activity.


     In economic terms
this is due to the reduction in the price of a commodity, in the transport
context an increased mobility, results in the lower perceived cost of travel
(reduced travel time or delay or improved reliability), hence increase in demand
(Charles, 2010). Roadway congestion and in order to reduce the time consume to
reach the destination results in the demand of public transportation. In
general it is higher and even more condensed in the morning and evening times
while it is sparse in the remaining times of the day. While the rush hour
demand mainly comes from the workers and students, the remaining demand comes
from the parties such as shoppers, leisurers and other travelers (Hauer, 1971).



Pedestrian bridge


      According to
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Term, pedestrian bridge refers to bridge
for people on foot only. This is the best solution for the pedestrians to cross
the road (Shimogami, 1991) Normally
there are two types of pedestrian bridge such as overhead footbridge and
underpass but in Malaysia, the most common bridge is the overhead. Therefore,
the definition has been referred to a small bridge which are designed and used
solely for pedestrian use only.


bridges are used for pedestrians to cross busy roads with vehicles but in this
study the pedestrian bridge is used to cross the river without using
‘penambang’. In addition, the pedestrian bridges can be seen as a tool or
crossing facilities the safest and most efficient for pedestrian. Pedestrian
bridges that has been provided for the public should be able to attract the
attention to use when are crossing. This is why the design of the bridge is
important because there are a lot of pedestrians often feel reluctant to use
the pedestrian bridges provided by the authorities. Although the time taken by
pedestrians using the bridge is less than the time taken using ‘penambang’. To
ensure that pedestrian bridges are provided to give the maximum corresponds to
the users, the pedestrian bridge should be located in strategic areas where the
users do not have to walk far to use it.


Historical background of traditional
‘penambang’ and its development over the years


to Attorney General of Malaysia, ‘penambang’ was
established in 1966 at Sarawak river. The service was 5 cents for children and
10 cents for adults. Furthermore, It took 5 to 8 minutes to reach to the other
side of the river because the boatmen was only using paddlers instead of outboard

Throughout the years, the
service increased its fare to 30 cents for children and 50 cents for adults. The
time taken to cross the river was shorten to 2 to 3 minutes depends on the
current of the river.


perceptions towards the ‘penambang’


prefer travelling by land than using ‘penambang’. Moreover, ‘penambang’ has become
just merely an iconic symbol in Kuching.


2.7 Summary


the review of literature from this chapter, it can be concluded that pedestrian
bridge and water taxi plays a big role in its own part. Both serves its
function for the users. Despite the advancement of technology these days, there
are still some people prefer to use the water taxi instead of crossing the
bridge to reduce the time consume and also to sightsee.




































         The research methodology is presented
in this chapter where the specific objective in this research is on the
relationships between before and after the bridge construction and its impact
towards the traditional boatmen.


Research methodology


         Research methodology refers to a method used
to conduct a research to collect information. This is where the process used to
collect information and data for the purpose of achieving the objective of the


Study design


         Research design is based on quantitative and
descriptive study, method of collecting data by giving out questionnaires and
interviews. This study design was chosen because it is more suitable for
studies on many individuals and can be more confident with a result.


Study setting


         The study of future of ‘penambang’ was done at
Waterfront, Kuching district, Sarawak. This study method will give a clear understanding
on the concept of ‘penambang’ and how it will give impact on the boatmen’s business
after the Golden Bridge is built.



Study population


        There are only two types of respondents in this study.
Study population was the boatmen and the users at Waterfront, Kuching.

Inclusion criteria


The boatmen.

People who used the ‘penambang’.




        Instruments to be used in this study are data triangulation
and methodological triangulation.




         Questionnaires is a specific tool, also known
as instrument, for gathering information (Slattery, et al., 2011). It was further
explained that questionnaires also known to have scale that create quantified
score. Questionnaires are the most widely used of methods for collection of
data. It normally serves many purposes in measuring some aspects of a social
life phenomenon and gather information in order to test a theory or problem
statement. Questionnaires will be given out to the boatmen and users respectively.








         An interview is a conversation where
the questions are asked by the interviewers and answers are given by the
interviewee. It is also known as one-on-one conversation where one person act as
the interviewer and the other act as the interviewee. The participants take
turn to talk such as the interviewer ask questions and the interviewee answers
it. This method were used on boatmen and users of ‘penambang’.




            Methods that have been
mentioned above is to give the idea that one can be more confident with the
result if different methods are used and more data can be collected. This is to
get a more accurate result with more data that has been collected by many
methods. Data triangulation and methodological triangulation will provide sufficient
data on boatmen’s business because two types of respondent were involved. Besides
that, this method will also increases the credibility and validity of the
results. (Feldman, Altrichter, Posch, & Somekh, 2008) stated that triangulation
“gives a more detailed and balanced picture of the situation.