Flooding of the country, to less than 1,000 millimetres

Flooding is a classical problem in the Philippines. One of the causes of these floods are heavy rainfalls. Coronas, José (1920) said that Annual average rainfall ranges from as much as 5,000 milliliters (197 in) in the mountainous east coast section of the country, to less than 1,000 millimetres (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. So therefore, if floods occur regularly in the Philippines, it could have various effects. Also based from statistics, at least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines can be traced to tropical cyclones, while the southern islands receiving less than 10 percent of their annual rainfall from tropical cyclones, Kintanar, R. L. (1984). Climate of the Philippines. PAGASA. With these numbers, it is highly likely that areas like Marikina and Cainta would oftenly experience flooding. As we can see floods can reach a point where a person is at risk of drowning, people do not take this seriously as they think that the floods would not reach them, or the rain would subside immediately, but in the cases that they are wrong, these are the times when they are vulnerable.
Flooding could cause millions in structural damage. The Philippine Daily Inquirer (Aug 2013) wrote that economic losses caused by the severe flooding in Metro Manila and its surrounding provinces, have been huge. GMA News reported that during the year 2009, Ondoy caused the Philippines P10.5 billion, the costs were broken down to P3.864 billion in infrastructure and P6.766 billion in agriculture, but flooding does not only cause damage to infrastructure and the like, it could also lead to loss of life. According to de Villa, K. (July 2017) Among the devastating typhoons that had hit Metro Manila include Typhoon Ondoy (international name: Ketsana ) in 2009, which killed 464 people, flooded 239 barangays in the metro, with Marikina City affected the most, government data showed.
Being personally unprepared for floods is linked to the victims produced by this natural occurrence in areas prone to flooding. Heavy rainfall could occur at anytime. Many people live in high areas so they are not at all much affected by these disastrous calamities. Most of the causes of these floods are the heavy rainfalls that hit the Philippines each and every year, although this is only one-half of the problem. The other half is that people are sometimes unprepared for events like this, they rely too much on the government to make the adjustments, or they simply do not care much of it, until they are the ones affected by the disaster.
The Philippines is known for the storms it experiences each year and the constant flooding that comes with it. Marikina and Pasig City are among the few areas that were identified by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, or otherwise known as MMDA, as flood prone areas. Looking back at Typhoon Ondoy for example, we know that it killed over 400 people Olan, S. (2014). Olan, S. (2014) also said that the rainfall produced by Ondoy was 56.83 mm/hr based on its 24-hour recorded rainfall, and it was equal to a month’s volume based on previous records. Ryota Nakamura evaluated Typhoon Yolanda when he wrote the Evaluation of Storm Surge Caused by Typhoon Yolanda (2013) and Using Weather – Storm Surge – Wave – Tide Model. Based on Nakamura, Ryota’s calculations, a height of the estimated storm surge reached approximately 5.0 m at Tacloban. We know that from all this, the Philippines is never safe from heavy and rainfalls, we aim to provide at least some sort of safety measure to help combat these instances of being unprepared.
With constant flooding, the Philippines government has come up with numerous ways on how to combat the effects of flooding. These safety precautions is not a hundred percent effective as we all know, but it’s better to be prepared than to not know what you should do. The Peoples’ Assembly for General Alternatives to Social Apathy, or more commonly known as PAGASA, has come up with things like emergency hotlines, safety tips, and forecast terms and symbols. This has become useful to people in flood prone areas so that they could do their best to prepare themselves for the coming weather. There are also numerous websites that show you steps on what to do before, during, and after a typhoon or flood. Despite officials from Peoples Assembly for General Alternatives to Social Apathy and the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority are doing their best to prepare the Philippines for these weather conditions, the system is not perfect and therefore something must be done that could give the people an edge against these tough weather conditions.
There is a need to add to the precautionary measures taken by the Philippine government with regards to preventing disaster from floods. Technology and new flood systems should be taken into consideration to help the citizens of the Philippines prepare more for disasters in the future. A lot of the population of the Philippines is almost always affected by these floods, numerous casualties also occur each year because of unpreparedness. Flood equipment should also be looked into to see if there are necessary changes that could be implemented into it, so that it would be more efficient or useful.
Floods occur in a number of places, one of them being the Philippines. Floods happen very often during the rainy season. The government has made a lot of precautionary measures like early warning signs, measurements of water levels along rivers, and more accurate weather forecasts to try and lessen the vulnerability of the national citizens of the Philippines. These precautions are for the general public, but not much has been done to provide personalized safety during floods. People rely on the government to provide them with these essential needs, to take these safety measures, and the rescue teams that they provide, but people should also think about the fact that, what if they do not get rescued?
During boat rides, swimming in deep waters, or floods, we need to follow certain precautions to ensure our survival during these events. A simple life vest could help increase your chances of survival by a huge percentage. People most times do not want to wear a life jacket because it’s a hassle and it looks very bulky. Taken from Maxim, D. (2015) who wrote the Summary of Relevant Life Jacket Research, those who wear a life jacket have a greater chance of surviving long enough to be rescued or to rescue themselves. This shows that in case of a disaster, being prepared is better than not wearing it because you think you know that no accidents will happen to them.
There are statistics taken from Braynard, K. (2015) which says that in 2014, where a cause of death was known, 78% of fatal boating accidents drowned. And of those victims, it is known that 84% were not wearing a life vest. This shows the mere usefulness of just being prepared by using a lifevest, it also shows that there is a huge percentage of those who drowned without wearing a lifevest as opposed to those who were wearing one. Drowning from boating accidents can be compared to drowning in floods. People who drown in floods are often swept away by the strong current and they could not balance or float themselves up to get some air. The life vest is a very effective tool in preventing people from drowning, and it has been used since 1854, which is primary use at the time was to be worn by lifeboat crews for buoyancy and weather protection Lifejacket History (n.d.).
Quistberg, et al. (2014) wrote that life jackets may prevent one in two drowning deaths, however, 85% of recreational boating-related drowning victims in the United States of America in the year 2012, did not wear a life jacket, taken from Low Life Jacket use among Adult Recreational Boaters: A Qualitative Study of Risk Perception and Behavior Factors. Also from the same research, Quistberg wrote that most boaters reported inconsistent use of the life jacket, and they were only used when the conditions were poor. This shows that people do not want to wear life jackets because they feel that no accidents will occur. Another reason is that maybe, they could not get their hands on one, and therefore stopped searching for a life vest. This is why our product is needed, to provide personal safety in the event of a flood or boating accident. These statistics also show that not everyone who wears a life vest survives, as stated by Maxim (2015), “People who wear a life jacket and are immersed in water do not always survive.” This could have numerous factors. One, the quality of the life jacket, life jacket that have plastic like material will surely not survive long in floods, this could be because of the tremendous pressure of water, the weight of the individual wearing it, or there could be some debris that would cause the life jacket to burst.
In a country just like ours, flooding occurs very often. Despite this, the government does not require that we take personal precautions to combat these kinds of disasters. In Padang Terap, state of Kedah, Malaysia, Fizri, et al (2010) stated that Every household was encouraged to prepare a flood kit for every family member. The study tells us that the government of Malaysia requires that they personally prepare for flood related disasters to reduce the casualties. According to Maidl, et al (2014), during the last decade, several hazard maps have been developed and implemented in an increasing number of countries. This helps not only the locals to prepare for such occurrences, but also for the tourists. If the people in the country, foreign or local, knows about the risk of flooding in that certain area, then they could at least prepare for the likelihood of a flood. This also shows that governments are doing their best to combat these natural disasters, by implementing new things to help the people become aware of the area.
Although let’s say that people are personally prepared for floods, this does not guarantee that they would in fact survive, the could be personally prepared in the sense that they would have extra provisions if they get stranded at home, or they have a backup generator or flashlights to help themselves in case there would ever be a blackout due to the excessive rainfall. The quality and the need of the life jacket could in fact be in question. As mentioned beforehand, life jackets could be made out of a hard but buoyant material. The buoyancy of the life jacket would help a person keep himself or herself upright in case he or she gets swept by the current of the flood. The hard material provides protection and keeps the life jacket more durable in case the said person comes in contact to debris. Personalized safety is also an issue, According to Ohl, et al (2000), many instances of drowning occur as motorists attempt to cross moving flood waters in their vehicles. A law was also implemented that life jackets should be worn during recreational boating. Gungor, et al (2015) said that Life Jacket regulation requires all separators to wear their life jackets, representing a 20% increase in wear rate, would have saved 1,721 out of 3,047 boaters.
Life jackets are indeed one of the most handful tools when you are drowning. Although, you are affected by the quality of the life jacket, and thus, these previous life jackets, are not for the public. Not everyone who wears a life jacket survives. One of the factors could either be, the quality of the life jacket, the condition in which it was subjected to, or the wearer. The quality may be made of a weak material. The condition where you used a life jacket may have been provided too much pressure to the life jacket. Or simply, the wearer did not have a perfect fit for the life jacket. To combat this, the life jacket would have to be made of a durable material, while being buoyant enough to keep the wearer’s head out of the water.
A considerable amount of research has been made about being prepared for the disaster of flooding. Different measures like, early warning systems to the effectiveness of teaching how to combat disasters through games which children played. But little research was done on how to make a life jacket more effective and efficient. Also, the effectiveness of a life vest, and its usefulness in recreational boating activities, or flooding has been extensively studied. However less attention has been paid to making other designs for the life vest so that it could help more people. As a result, there appears to be no theory that exists. Despite the importance of the life jacket in certain situations, few researchers have studied on what upgrades can be made to the typical life jacket so that it could be used more by people.
Based on previous research, it is not clear if the life jacket can be modified to be used for somethings else. In spite of the life jacket being as it is, the design on how to make it more useful, or what to add to the normal jacket to make it more useful to the public has remained unclear. How much has the effectiveness of the life vest, actually decreased? The life vest as we all know could only be used in times when a person is vulnerable to drowning. The researchers want to increase the usefulness of a life vest, by giving it an alternate design where when it is not in use for lessening the risk of drowning, it could be used as a storage for essential first aid supplies.
The aim of this paper is to help medical teams and citizens reduce their vulnerability in flood situations. The researchers opt to make a device that would be useful in floods, and it could still be used for other purposes.Another aim of this paper is to look into the equipment used for first aid, and try to enhance its usefulness.This would be done, by constructing a life vest, that could also be used as a first aid kit, when it is not needed in a flood. There are times when the life vest is useless, as it could have been bought just for emergencies, so to lessen the hassle for medical teams or citizens, the researchers aim to design a life vest that could be for storing the essential items found in a first aid kit.
As stated, the researchers will be designing a life vest that could also be used as a medical kit. This paper proposes a design for the life vest that would in turn be approved for use by the Philippine Red Cross. The researchers would also want to accomplish in combining two essential equipment for medical or rescue teams, the life vest and the first aid kit. The life vest, even though it will be used as a containment for medical tools and supplies, will be tested to ensure that it will hold the weight of an individual, and that the design will either be equal to the efficiency of a normal life vest, or that it could even exceed it. The researchers aim to increase the capacity of a normal medical kit, so that it could hold more supplies and it would take longer before the supplies would need to be replenished.