Q3) Europeans were confused about why the war had been battled, the First World War had many underlined causes but what really triggered this battle occurred in Sarajevo in an ancient market town that was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire on 1914. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the legal owner to the Austrian throne. Archduke one day took a visit with his wife to Sarajevo were first, a bomb was thrown at Archdukes car but missed injuring about twenty other spectators. Then as they continued to drive, a man stepped out the crowd onto the streets and fired two shots, one killing Archdukes wife and the other killing Archduke himself. At the royal court of the large city of Vienna, they perceived the assassination as a threat to the very existence of the empire. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was self-possessed of many feuding nationalities, held together only by the power of the throne. If one group rebelled, the empires leaders feared that all the rest would quickly follow. Acting on this fear, Austria responded to the assassination by sending its troops to attack the independent state of Serbia. Which believed to be the main group of nationalist agitation. Not to long later Europe was embroiled in a war that would last for four and a half years and eventually involved the whole world. Before examining the causes of this war, it is useful to compare the stated goals of the warring countries with the actual outcome. The Austro-Hungarian Empire was ruled by one of the four major dynasties that before war was controlled in central and Eastern Europe. All four empires entered the war to protect and expand their domains. But by the time war ended, all four dynasties had been toppled and new countries soon emerged. In Russia czar’s government which went to war against Austria to support fellow Slavs in Serbia was overthrown by revolution. Germany sent its armed force to battle what it believed to be its rightful place as a major world power an ambition that soon ended in defeat and humiliation. Even French and English suffered in a terrible loss. Not only were millions of their country men killed and their economies shattered, but their colonial empires in Africa and Asia were in a really in a great state of confusion. The United States entered the war three years after the fighting had begun.
At the time of the assassination of Sarajevo, the great power of Europe has squared off one another in the pair of hostile alliances basically guaranteeing that if any two countries went to war the rest would follow. For 20 years the nations of Europe had been engaged in an Arms race, each country determined to remain or become stronger then any enemy that believes has potential. Currently in our society people take nationalism for granted, they identify themselves as citizens of a particular nation and loyal only to that nation and its government. Although nationalism as we know has not begun to develop until the nineteenth century. Nationalism was fostered by the spread of mass education, with central governments controlling the schools children through each nation began to read the same history books to learn the same patriotic songs, to develop a common sense of their traditions and culture. Although as Governments concentrated on mainly on increasing the size and strength of the nation, democracy and nationalism became separate issues. In 1870, French and German nationalism met face to face and begun a war called the Franco-Prussian war. For the successful Germans the war was symbolized as a source of pride. The French however felt violated plotting a time for revenge. In the Baulkan Peninsula in southeast Europe nationalism caused many small wars.