ExecutiveSummaryThe purpose of this paperis to provide information about the best practices for hiring and selection ofemployees. Hiring practices are different than what they were a decadeago. Applications have moved from a paper based form to a digitaldirection. There is no one size fits all approach to hiring andrecruiting. This paper is meant tohelp hiring managers and recruiters move from traditional recruiting to a morestrategic staffing process. During the hiring and recruitment process, not only arecandidates making an impression towards the hiring managers but so is theemployer. A bad interview experience can determine whether a candidateaccepts or declines a job offer. This assignment offersrecruiters a strategic staffing approach to hiring and retaining employees.
Screening candidates is a lengthy and tedious process but hiring staff shouldreview all applicants resumes and applications and test candidates on theskills and characteristics necessary to perform the role and determine if theircompetencies fit in with the company. It is important tocontact references not listed by the candidate to obtain a better review aboutthe candidate. The reference’s tone of voice can help recruiters eliminatecandidates because if a reference does not sound enthusiastic when speakingabout the candidate or cannot provide any information about the applicant it ispossible that the candidate is not as good on the job as stated on his resumeor application. Recruiting and hiring theright candidates is an essential part of building a strong organization. Hiringmanagers and recruiters should spend ample time and energy in selecting themost suitable candidate. The recruiting team needs to consider all of the applicantsfeatures aside from their qualifications like dedication, sincerity, the levelof satisfaction drawn from the job by the candidate which are fundamental forretention.The traditional business hiring concept of finding the bestcandidates to fill job openings has transformed to a more vigorous conceptcalled strategic staffing.
Strategic staffing aims to generate a pool of acombination of internal and external workers that are strategically designed tomeet the needs of a business. It involves reviewing all jobs within an organization todetermine how best to organize the workforce and resources to meet theorganizations needs in any business environment. Recruitingemployees can be a delicate procedure because itinvolves choosing the best staffing choices available to address the corebusiness needs HR and other managers have identified.When to Recruit An organization must determine whento begin its recruiting efforts to ensure that hiring staff will be ready whenthe business needs them.
Once the vacancy has been identified, recruiters need toproperly plan and evaluate the skills and knowledge required which will lead tohiring the right person for the role. For a newly createdposition it is important for managers and HR to understand the strategic goalsfor the department. Hence, it is essential to create a job analysis for the newposition to evaluate the core skills required and to tailor the position toensure proper classification. When filling in a position for a replacement managers and HRshould review and modify the job description to determine if any changes arenecessary to the tasks and responsibilities to be performed by the new employee. A job description or analysis isfundamental for a successful recruitment process. Inthe article, “Getting the Right People on the Bus”: Recruitment, selection andintegration for the branded organization, the authors reveal that the missionstatement and the core values are used as the starting point in all job advertsand secondary to a short description of the responsibilities of the role beforefinally an outline of the necessary skills expected (Brannan and Russell, 2016).
The job descriptionclearly communicates responsibilities and qualifications to attract the bestsuited candidates. Before posting an open position, HR and managers must createa job description and include salary information, benefits summary, descriptionof the position and the department’s functions and its role in supporting,administering, and managing the activities of the department. Marketingthe position to a diverse pool of applicants is just as important as accuratelydescribing the role.Internal vs External RecruitingRecruitingfrom the current employee pool benefits the organization in many ways. Companies use internal recruitmentto screen applicants within the existing workforce. Internal recruitment is offering ajob or promoting someone who is currently employed by the company.
Although internal hiring issometimes limited it is easier than external recruiting. Recruiters can recruit internally tofind a candidate within a business through promotion, internal job postings onbulletin boards, temp to hire employees or the company’s intranet. An advantage of internal recruitmentis that hiring managers understand an applicant’s work habits, skills,capabilities, work relationships, and ethics.
Employees know the business and fit within the organization. Internal promotions motivateemployees and increases retention.By hiring internally, employees feel the company is providing them withpromotional and developmental opportunities in reward for their performance andloyalty. Internal recruiting can create conflict amongstcolleagues.Opening up a posting to internal employees can have a negative impact on morale.
If the recruiter has a currentemployee in mind, other employees who apply for the position can feeldiscouraged.Recruiting internal seems quick and easy but can limit the talent pool fromwhich to choose from.Another issue with internal recruiting is that recruiters will have to hiresomeone to replace that employee that was promoted. Organizationssource candidates outside of the organizationduringexternal recruiting. When utilizing externalrecruitment method for clients, companies need to explain its advantages to itsclients. Manyorganizations utilize temp agencies for external recruitment which promotetheir services.During external recruitment, job applicants who are not currently employed withthe business are hired. Hiringmanagers and recruiters use their specialized skills and large candidate pool findexternal applicants.
Recruiters use externalrecruitment methods to find candidates for their clients such as job boards,social media, websites, and referrals. King,O’Rourke, and DeLongis (2014) insist that in many instances, social media maybe the most effective means to recruit participants from low-prevalence andinvisible population and that much more of the world population than waspreviously accessible, can be reached via social media today. Recruiting from outside can betterhelp the company find a candidate who can add real value to the business and whois better qualified than the person being considering internally. External recruitment advertisinghelps the company find a variety of qualified candidates for the post offered. The process helps identify the bestcandidates in a lot of skilled candidates.An outside candidate can bring new ideas and new focus to the organization.
Hiringexternally takes longer and costs more.Various activities take place in recruiting outside candidates such as vacancyannouncement, collection of applications, review of application forms,selection process, interviews, background/drug test, etc. Another disadvantage of hiringexternally is that it can reduce existing employees’ morale, for they may seethe new employee as their competitor.The existing employees may feel dissatisfied with their jobs and leave theorganization.Last, external employees may face adaptability problem, as they are new to theorganization and its environment.More time will be needed for them to be familiar with organizationalarrangements.InterviewingManytimes, recruiters invest time with candidates who have outstanding resumes butlack the essential traits to effectively execute the role and at the end the candidatedoes not deliver.
Theinterview process is an important step in the selection process because the employerand the candidate have the opportunity to learn about each other and validateinformation provided by both. Itis important for recruiters to properly prepare for the interview, for this istheir opportunity to evaluate the skills and competencies. During the interview process,interviewers can review the applicant’s application or resume and jot down anycomments, questions, or concerns to follow-up on.
Interviews can be conducted one-on-one, panel, or virtual to reduce travelcosts and time associated with interviewing out of area applicants. Panelinterviews can be an intimidating environment for an interviewee. Utilizingbehavioral or competency based interview questions allows the interviewer toobtain more meaningful data to determine the applicant’s ability to carry outthe duties and responsibilities of the job.TestingUponcompleting the interview, recruiters can conduct tests to further assesscandidates depending on the position and the needs of the organization.
The entire hiring process is a testfor candidates and pre-employment testing is another critical step in the selectionprocess. Testsare a useful way to sort through candidates and disqualify people who do notmeet the minimum requirements. Thefollowing tests can be administered: technical skills, trainability, personalitytraits, problem-solving abilities, physical, honesty, drug, reference, andrealistic job preview tests. Askills test allows applicants to demonstrate how to perform a task specific tothe position they are applying to.
Trainabilitytests measure an applicant’s ability to understand critical job components thatthe firm will teach the applicant if hired. Manyorganizations are now testing earlier in the selection process because costsinvolved with interviewing exceeds the costs of testing.Testsand the selection tools previously stated should not be relied as the onlyscreening mechanism, for interviews and reference checks play a major role inthe final decision making. Recruiters should not relyheavily on a score, for he best hiring decisions consider many aspects of acandidate’s personality, behavior and skills. Itis best to administer multiple tests, developed and validated by experts. Hiringmanagers must remember to administer job related testing, any non-related jobtesting could be legally challenged. Anotherimportant note is to follow the EEOC guidelines when administering and developingtests.
ReferenceCheckingAnotherimportant step in the selection process is reference checks. Many organizations prefer to checkreferences prior to interviewing candidates to allow them to eliminate applicantsand gather information to be used later in the interviewing process. When conducting reference checks, employersshould contact individuals other than those named by the applicant. An issue with the reference checkingis that employers do not provide information pertaining to the applicants work ethicsother than verify dates of employment, position held, and salary.
It is best to obtain references froman applicants’ current and previous supervisor who has knowledge about the applicantjob performance.Hiring mistakes cost time, energy, and money. Contactingreferences that are not listed can provide the employer with useful informationrather than using a listed reference who is likely to say something positiveabout the candidate to make them look better.
Anemployer can face legal consequences if they fail to check references. The employer can be held legallyresponsible for negligent hiringifan employee engages in harmful behavior, which should have been revealed in areference check.SelectionHiringconsciously means awareness around the role, the purpose and outcomes requiredto successfully validate the roles existence and cost in the organization; aswell as mindfulness about who the right type of person is for the role(Graziano, 2017). Thenotion of best employee is open to interpretation, this is generally acceptedto be those that align most closely with organizational objectives and values. Once the interviews have beencompleted, HR and managers will meet to discuss the interviewees. During the selection process, the hiringstaff will need to evaluate the extent in which each candidate met theirselection criteria.
Organizationswant to keep the right people and that is those who contribute and move thebusiness forward. Garzianostates, when you look at hiring like you look at improving your running, tennisor golf game, it only makes sense to hire people who raise the bar and makeeveryone better in the process (2017).High performers focus on doing the right things, achieving outcomes, focus onmaking improvements to products and the business depending on their role. An optimized workforce means thatthe right people are focused on the right things such as increased sales,operational efficiency, innovation, customer experience and sustainability. Not only do phone screens helprecruiters weave out unqualified candidates buthelps them obtain information such as availability, salary requirements, positionrequirements, determine minimum requirements and other introductory informationto assist the hiring staff with their review.
Duringthe initial screening, hiring staff can screen out an applicant frominformation obtained during the process. All phone screens shouldbe properly documented. FinalizeRecruitmentAftercompleting the recruitment process the offer to the selected finalist is made. It is important to confirm allapplicants were treated uniformly in the recruitment, screening, interviewingand final selection process. Afterselecting a finalist, the initial offer can be a verbal offer of employment andthe final candidates’ verbal acceptance creates a contractual relationship. The employers’ initial offer shouldbe the best, for the proposal displays proper market and internal equitypractices and demonstrates good faith to the applicant.
Candidates seek employment whichprovides learning and developing opportunities which help them in achievingtheir professional goals, therefor, they should inform applicants about the possibilityof development and training during the process. Individualsvalue employee training and development as much as the salary and benefits offered. Regardless of an employers’ bestoffer, there are times where the applicant declines an offer due to salary. In such case, the department maymake a counter offer provided the amount is within the appropriate guidelinesfor the positions and department.Recruiterscan discuss with the applicant the reasons for declining the offer many timesapplicants the reasons applicants decline offer is not always due to the salarybeing offered but for various reasons.
Strategicstaffing processes provides recruiters with a strategy to assure employers havean appropriate number of people with the right skill sets for their current andfuture business goals.Staffing requirements change as the business grows or with the introduction oftechnology, therefore, hiring staff must match talents competencies and skills withthe company’s needs. Employersshould identify needs before recruiting, developing and keeping employees. Traditional approaches don’t work forstaffing, recruiters should address staffing from a proactive, planningperspective, not just an implementation concern.