Elise in 2013, Ibuprofen works by blocking the signal

Elise CapsonSpeaking Plan for ARgumentative PresentationAUDIENCE- Potential medical studentsSETTING- This is an optional medical seminar held in a lecture hall at ISU and occurs in present day.TYPE OF PRESENTATION- ArgumentativeTHESIS STATEMENT- Medication should be used more cautiously when there is a very limited understanding of how it works.ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE- CategoricalMAJOR IDEAS-A.        It can be surprising what little doctors understand about drugs that people use all the time, even the most common over the counter drugs.1) According to a scientific published journal in 2013, Ibuprofen works by blocking the signal that tells the brain that something is hurt and damaged and as a result, the pain is blocked.

                    a.) When the signal is being blocked, the brain can no longer tell if something is damaged and as a result, it takes a longer time to mend the damage.2) Many doctors, nonetheless, still decided to use it even though they knew healing process was hindered but this isn’t a common knowledge among people.3) Counter- argument- Doctors and scientists are working diligently to find out more about drugs and how different people react to them, but research tells us that there is still much to learn.B.  Medications that requires a prescription such as a common antidepressant: Zoloft, have much higher risks than OTC drugs.1)    According to the organization, National Alliance on Mental Illnesses, they believe that at the microscopic level that Zoloft affects serotonin levels in your brain to effectively balance things out. They also know possible reactions to this medication that may include shivering, diarrhea, confusion, severe muscle tightness, fever, seizures, death and more.

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Currently, it is unknown what causes these side-effects though.2) Starting in 1999, researchers at the University of British Columbia (and published by the FDA) conducted an in-depth study of 1,027 people testing Zoloft worldwide. They were each given a calculated amount based on their weight and metabolism. There were 72 deaths directly correlated with ingesting Zoloft. Only 75 completely recovered which is a success rate of 7.3%. That is a horrible percentage!  634 patients experienced over dosages, which made their health worsen. The possibility of experiencing an overdose is over 60% according to these results.

246 patients had adverse effects and their paper simply stated that “This change is unknown”. This means that they truly have no idea why or how this happened.3) The counter Many people argue that for drugs to be used on humans they go through insane amounts of testing and are thus safe enough. Even though a newly produced drug has been closely studied for at least 25 years, it is still far from being completely understood.

C.  The human body is very complex and researchers and scientists still have much to learn, particularly concerning anesthesia.1.) We still haven’t figured out the conundrum of how people can remain conscious.

2.) Scientists and doctors, without much of a precaution, seem to experiment with consciousness and unconsciousness anyways with general anesthesia, with an incomplete understanding of how it works. We have been using anesthesia for over 170 years and we still can’t figure it out.3.) It has been found that anesthesia can induce, “a condition known as postoperative delirium, a state of serious confusion and memory loss”(Dvorsky, George). Isn’t this a huge red flag? A study further showed that, “roughly half of all patients age 60 and over suffer from this sort of delirium” and some would have “lingering problems for months and even years afterward” (Dvorsky, George). There are most likely many more damaging side effects from anesthetics that have not been discovered yet.

4.) Whenever anyone is put under, scientists and doctors are merely hoping that it works and that the patient doesn’t die. Alarmingly, according to an international German scientific journal, “the number of deaths within a year of having general anesthesia is one in 20. In the over-65 age group, it’s one in 10.” The original scientific journal is in German so I was not able to determine if this was a direct correlation or if there were other factors included.5.

) Now I somewhat agree with the counter argument that Anesthesia is worth the alternative of not having it in surgery.6.) Counter-argument -Why are anesthetics so readily used to manipulate something that isn’t understood? They simply know that it works, but that certainly shouldn’t justify the use of it. Hypothetically, what if with more research, scientists find that anesthetics are one of the worst drugs that someone could intake?INTRODUCTION – When was the last time you thought about the actual risks of taking a medication? Did you just figure it to be safe? There are surprising amounts of knowledge that you would have assumed to have already been figured out in the medical world that has not been.

Medication should be used more cautiously when there is a very limited understanding of how it works. CONCLUSION – Scientists and doctors have a lot to learn about individual bodies; especially how each one metabolizes and handles drugs differently. We can see this evidence in the case study of Zoloft where each patient was given the same proportion of drug yet the results varied and there were very few successes. Even though there are protections put into place to ensure that the best drugs are manufactured, there still needs to be more caution in taking medications. Many people don’t worry about the dangers and risks of drugs; especially familiar over-the-counter drugs such as Ibuprofen, but they need to start.

Manipulation of the body should not be taken lightly, and in this day and age, it most likely is. I hope after hearing my presentation you will decide to use drugs, of all sorts, more carefully.TRANSITIONS: Between the 2nd and 3rd ideas I will say,”As you can see, there are quite a few unknowns and downsides to Zoloft, but anesthesia has even more.”  When shifting from an over the counter medication to one requiring a prescription, there are more unknowns and more risks. Between the last main point and the conclusion I will say, “Because of these many unknowns people should be more informed and aware of the risks of medications.

“DELIVERY- My major strength is using my hands appropriately. I need to work on keeping calm.REFUTATION BLOCK:Citations: