Effectiveness countries due to varying laws, institutional structures, unique


evolution of  public management models
and approaches each having some flaws and the emergence ofthe new approaches
sedimenting the previous ones(Stephen P. Osborne, 2006) have dramatically influenced
the human resource practices around the world. Hence a synthesis of the best
attributes of all the three models (traditional public administration, public
managment and new public management , responsive governance) is presented in
this report. This synthesis took impartiality from public administration, professionalism
from new public managment and responsiveness from governance(Eldridge, 2007)

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effectiveness of the report is evaluated on the basis of the appropriateness of
this mix in the light of the literature.

No set of
reform is “fit for purpose”. Reforms stimulate radical changes and such type of
changes need appropriate context to bring the desired outcomes. This can not be
done overnight and should be implemented carefully. Reform is set of tools that
should be used with careful selection. Haphazard adoption of the reforms is the
mistake that many developing countries make. For example Drechsler said that NPM
is bad if pushed upon transitioning economies or developing countries. Reforms
could vary across countries due to varying laws, institutional structures,
unique cultures etc(de Vries & Nemec, 2013) So the reforms are path
dependant. It largely depends on the norms, values, and ethos existing in a
particular country.

complexities in the environment of public organization have icreased the need
to involve multi stakeholders in the policy making and pblic service delivery.
Due to these pluralities no single model of public administration could be the solution
in the uncertain environment. Different societal actors have different needs
and resources. In order to cope with the different set  of demands public officials need to be
effective  public managers negotiation
and settling conflicting demands of the stake holders.   the answer to these uncertainities,
inconsistencies is the complex and comprehensive reforms(Klijn, 2008)So
the synthesis is justified. Now these attributes will be evaluated separately
justifying their appropriateness for the public sector.

Impartiality and merit:

is the foremost requirement for the effective implementation of HR reforms in
public administration. If the public officials suffer with political pressures
or have the tendency to subordinate political interests then this attitude can
lead to disruption of the intended change or the reforms will not give intended
results. Personal ideologies of the public officials is again another
hinderance. These are  ingrained in their
personalities  and hard to change.They
will tend to advance their ideologies instead of facing the realities of the
modernizing public sector. The only option to minimize the biases is the purely
merit based appointments and no political inclinations.Merit based selection is
idiosyncratic characteristic of civil services. There are many basis on which a
reform is adopted


Every government needs a strategy on how staff will
contribute to its overall goals and which is comprehensive and consistent.
“Strategic specialization” is the widely accepted model of HRM function
enabling government to manage their staff in best possible way. This model
includes three types of roles needed; strategic expert, employee champion and the
agent of continuous transformation.

Staff who play these roles need to be specialized. And they
are to be taken seriously by senior officials and politicians if they aspireto
influence the stategic managment of human resources in the public sector.those
specialists need to have both a solid understanding of the environment in which
the organization operates and ability to deliver services efficiently. The
typical career trajectory of the generalist public servant, who may previously
have been a district officer and who can expect to become the chairman of a
statutory board later on, is inadequate. Governments will need to invest in the
training of their own administrators or appoint HRM specialists from the
outside, if needed, innorder to manage the staff effectively.

Public managers need not to imitate the private sector
management practices while managing thepublic officals. The context of public
sector is very different from private sector. Public officials enjoy long
tenure, job security, seniority based promotions and many such immunities
gifted by the private sector. So managers should be cautious while making
strategies for this category of human resources. Public institutional
performance largely depends on the motivation, skills and integrity of the
human capital and the quality of leadership. Capacity development of the public
servants should be at heart of these efforts.this this also economically
feasible because public servants usually civil servants are lifelong employees.
So it negates the concern treating human resources as cost and instead  consider them an asset that will grow in
value if properly nurtured and utilized. Changing
the values and attitudes of public servants is never easy and will require
principled leadership and a clear vision and strategy for human resource
development. It will also call for more professional management of staff in the
public service.

The changes in the public management models and approaches
involved radical changes in the public institutions. Radical changes  need transformational leadership usually top
persons  who make these changes  receptive for those who bear the effects of
these changes and together facilitate and implement the change.  Authentic
leadership may influence followers’ change-oriented attitudes, beliefs, and
behaviors through follower psychological resources including hope, trust,
optimism, self-efficacy, and resilience, which influence readiness for change
and change implementation. We maintain that an authentic leader’s behavior can
influence his or her followers’ change-oriented behaviors in participation in
decision-making processes and change initiatives, organization citizenship
behavior, organizational learning processes, and forming coalition for change(Alavi & Gill, 2017)


The most
critical component of the synthesis proposed is responsiveness. With the
emergence of post NPM and governance reforms ( both of which advocates
stakeholders involvement)  responsiveness
has become the zeitgeist at present. According to agent theory(C. McMahan, 1992) citizen nowact as principal and government as an
agent. So in order to strenghthen the relationships and to minimize the
transaction cost associated with it public administrators must br responsive to
citizen. Keeping in view of the  Normann’s”momenr of truth” (Stephen P Osborne, Radnor, Kinder, & Vidal, 2015) they have to assess
expectations of the users in addition to creating pleasant experience of the
service. Citizens are part of the complex environment that challenges public
policy making.(Lynn, 2012)proposed
an analytic framework in which the interaction between three actors impacting
public decisions is depicted diagramatically in the following form:

of societal direction)


regulates the other two, make contracts with the private sector to provide
public goods and services, and the other two also deliver public with goods and
services in some way. They all are dependant on each others’ resources and have
interest in public policy making creating complexity for the managers in
decision making. Horizontal integration is necessary in such circumstances when
partnerships and network management is essence of public services(Lægreid & Christensen, 2012). Vertical integration is also
necessary when it comes to contracts or projects between diffrent levals of
government. Performance management takes altogether different form in such
context .Public managers should have an ability to manage the conflicting needs
of multistakeholders. They should posess strong negotitaing skills along with
the other administrative managerial skills. Managing stakeholders involvement
and network management are the new goals to public managers at present.


of the report is evaluated by assessing the hinderances that SHRM practices may
face in public sector while implementing such synthesis.

SHRM planning: Data
managment is at the heart of strategic planning of human resource managment.
Scaning of the past, present and future trends both internal and external to
the organization ignites the octane of thinking strategically. But this crucial
element is somewhat missing while strategically managing the public servants.
Public sector lacks in the systematic collection and analysis of data on the
quantity, quality, and performance of human resources. This isssue have to be
addressed by the governments at both national and global level. To keep pace
with the new models and approaches continuouse , accurate, reliable and valid
data on human resources in the public sector is direly needed otherwise
decisions will already be obsolete when implemented. SHRM is ineffective in
public sector in terms of SHRM planning. To make it effective public sector of
tomorrow should be based on the present and projected state of human resources.

Change managment:
The  HR implications could include the
need for new kinds of expertise and the development of public service cultures
that encourages more diverse forms of knowldge acquistion and dissemination,
that is, more sophisticated knowledge management systems and fostering and
development of organizational climates that encourage openness, partnerships
and participation as distinct from closure and concern for continuity.

Performance management:Performance
based pay.Performance based pay as apart of NPM doctrine did not give intended
results of efficiency in the public sector due to many resons. Permanent nature
of the jobs frown on the competition in the environment. Individual based measure
could not give remarkable result  here.
So while designing such a pay system group basis should be kept in account. It
will give more likely good results.

Pay policy : Adequate
pay is widely considered a key component in improving and sustaining the motivation,
performance and integrity of public servants. Conversely, low salary levels
result in absenteeism, alternative and additional employment, corruption and
low productivity. Thus the development of pay policy is an integral part of
strategic HRM in the public service. Sustaining perofrmance and motivation of
public servants should be an important consideration in the development of pay
policy.Political and fiscal constraints are key barriers specially for
devloping countries in delivering a purely rational and ideal reform. Since the
process is always affected by politics and scarcity of resources, the luxury of
an optimal policy does not always exist.Pay differentials between private and
public sector is a key concern. Low levels compensation in public sector give
way to the “secondary compensation” e.g, moonlighting and corruption.
Compensation should both be equitable and motivate staff.

Employment and Wage
data : Strategic HRM requires quality data on employment and wages.Considering
the growing importance of remuneration in motivating and retaining talented
staff in the public sector.Meagre efforts are devoted to the collection of
quality data on employment and wages particularly in developing countries
consequently making it difficult to measure the cost and contribution of human
resources to the overall performance of the public sector. The present report
therefore recommends that governments give more consideration to the
development of better systems and methodologies to further improve the collection
and analysis of data on wages and employment in the public sector.

Application of the
concept in Pakistani context

The synthesis proposed in this report has high potential for
the developing countries like Pakistan in effectively managing the human
resources. Impartiality, professionalism, responsiveness all are related and
dependant on each other in Pakistani context. For example if public sector has
to be responsive, it must have tendency toards professionalising its human
resources by making them to do their work by being impartial. Political
unstability is the biggest challenge in the pakistan to bring any radical chane.
E.g, devolution schemes took different forms in the history of Pakistan.
Referring to the causes of failure of 
government programs named  VAID (1952),
Basic democrat system (1961), and local government ordinace(2001)(Ahmad, 2013),
it is evident that political stability is the pre-requisite to bring any
radical changes. Above mentioned programs in their true sense intended to
mobilize the public at their grass root level. Connecting the dots with the
present report, that programs were intended to 
increase responsiveness in some way. But were sacrificed in the name of
personal interests of public bodies and political figures. The deep rooted
bureaucratic culture did not allow to let them weaken their power and prestige.
So the professionalism is another pre-requisite to advance the radical change
implementation through which public officials can only make connection of their
personal goals with the overall objectives of the country. Public managers
should be strategic expert and employee champion  but alongside they need an environment which
enables to make the decisions free of any political pressures. So another
component of the synthesis comes in i.e., Impartiality.


Pakistan has a great oppotunity to avail this synthesis in
the wake of VISION 2025, which is comprehensive plan that can actually lift the
status of Pakistan to the top 25 economies of the Worls. Opportunities exist in
the form of Mega Projects initiated by CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor)
especially for the backward areas of Baluchistan. New employment opportunities,
better infrastructure, and free trade port of Dubai can boost the economy to
zenith. Netwrorks of roads connecting Pakistan with China presents Pakistan an
opportunity to avail low cost raw materials along with other technical and
mechanical parts helping to industrialize Pakistan with great pace. Strategic
location of the Pakistan is additional benefit for the trade across the
borders. So now Goverments need to revise some of  its strategies e.g, temporarily diverting
great share of public spending to the backward areas although they do not
contribute much revenues at present but they are potential tax payers and
revenue contributors  in the future and
will definitely ensure the goal of reducing poverty from 49% to 20%, increasing
per capita income to $4200, and increase in tax to GDP ratio from 8.5% to 18%.

Although opportunities are here but the institutional
structures are not much compatible with the goals. For example the goal of promoting
public private partnerships through establishing Bureau of Infrastructure
Development to coordinate and oversee private sector participation and
providing one stop shop facility for project appoval, processing and financing
has tint of governance reforms 
demonstrating the appealing features of Horizontal integration and
network management(Lægreid & Christensen, 2012). Another example is the
vision 2025 promotes active engagement, collaboration by encouraging all
citizens to be vision champions at all levels by selecting them on the basis of
their contribution to exceptional new ideas, notable accomplishments in line
with the vision 2025 aspirations, and leadership roles in community based
initiatives and government is committed to making the government open,
transparent, accountable and responsive to citizens.

Above examples show that the environment of the public
administration is going to bring radical changes in its realm. To manage this
change proactively public managers are blessed with the synthesis proposed in
this report. Other wise the turbulence in the environment  will lead to haphazard adoption of the
reforms and the results will be disastorous.