Education policy in Ecuador and USName:University:Date: Educationpolicy in EcuadorIntroductionEducationpolicy is a common policy for any society or country. Since the ancient times,societies have been developing efficient systems of transmitting knowledge fromgeneration to generation (Johnson, 2017).
As Jameson(1999)stipulates, the earliest roles of education were transmission of culturalvalues from one generation to another and inculcation of social expectations inthe people. During these early times, education was done informally by oldmembers of the society. In the present day, there have been vast changes on theroles of education which have called for adoption of more sophisticatedapproaches of delivering education (Post, 2011).Every society in the present day is supposed to determine the goals ofeducation then come up with the most efficient and effective approaches ofachieving them. A culmination of these goals and approaches of achieving themas well as techniques of evaluating achievement is what is referred to aseducation policy.
In this paper, we are interested in analysing educationpolicy in Ecuador. After analysing this policy, we shall also make a comparisonbetween education policy in Ecuador and that of US. This comparison will beaimed at pointing out any similarities and differences between the twocountries as far as education is concerned.
Educationpolicy in EcuadorEcuadoris one of the countries in the world where education has been given preferenceas a tool for driving social change Aviles & Simons (2013).Literacy rate in Ecuador started climbing up after creation of repeatedpolicies and laws to ensure that education was accessible to all other thanbeing a preserve of the a few people (Johnson, 2017).There are several advancements that have been made by government of Ecuador toensure accessibility to education. To begin with, since the last decade of the20th century, the government of Ecuador has been progressing on anagenda of increasing learning institutions on order to make sure that allchildren can access education. Apart from increasing number of learninginstitutions, government of Ecuador has also expanded education financingthrough its exchequer to ensure that it is affordable to all (Jameson, 1999).All these are policies that have been formulated an implemented with the goalof increasing literacy level and also improving level of skilled manpower inline with the country’s development goals. Educationsystem in EcuadorEcuador’seducation system is one of its kinds.
According to the education policy thatwas formulated in the year 2000, Ecuador’s education system can be summarisedas 6:3:3 (Post, 2011). This means that six years of educationare spent in primary level and another six years are spent in secondary andadvanced levels (Johnson, 2017). According to Torres(2016),unlike in many parts of the world where pre-primary takes 2 to 3 years, inEcuador it takes only one year. Early education policy was formulated to ensurethat children take time to mature at home before joining formal education.According to this policy, it is important for a child to take time to interactwith the society and attain the required cognitive maturity to join formaleducation. Once a child has attained the age of 7 years, he or she attendspre-primary schools where they are introduced to leaning before joining primaryschool (Jameson, 1999).
Educationfinancing in EcuadorEducationin Ecuador is mostly financed by the government. However, at the advancedlevels of education, learners are required to pay fees. Basically, freeeducation in Ecuador starts from grade 1 to grade 9. Here all expenses involvedin education are financed by government of Ecuador through its exchequer (Jameson, 1999).Every financial year, an education budget is drawn then it is forwarded tofinance department. Education planning and budgeting is made by the ministry ofeducation. Education fund are then allocated to different schools depending onsuch factors are level of school and population.
Impactof education policy in EcuadorEducationpolicy in Ecuador has had major impact on all spheres of life. To begin with,through this policy, the government of Ecuador has managed to increase literacylevels to a high of about 94.35 percent. In the year 2013, literacy levels inEcuador were 93.
29%, this increased to 94.22% in 2014 and 94.46 in 2015.However, in the year 2016, there was a slight fall in literacy level occasionedby slight economic tide that affected financing especially for advanced levelswhere people are supposed to finance themselves (Post, 2011).Through this education policy Ecuador has managed to improve industrial growthas manpower is more skilled. At present, Ecuador supplies more that 70% of itsmanpower (Jameson, 1999).
Apart from improvement of manpower,education policy in Ecuador has also been instrumental in promotion of healthand improving standards of living. There are high levels of health awareness inEcuador compared to other countries in Latin America. Finally, education haspromoted social interaction and coexistence as people spend time together ineducation institutions and work.
This has strengthened the social pillars ofthe society which are the foundations of peace love and unity. Comparisonbetween education policies in Ecuador and USInUS education policy is different from Ecuador. Looking at policy goals, it canbe clearly stated that the goals of education policy in Ecuador are morefocused on education access and affordability. This is not the case in US; heremost policies are focused on education content and quality. The “No child leftbehind” act of 2001 is one of the greatest milestones that US has made in orderto achieve its goals in education (Cooley, 2015).In US, different from Ecuador, a learner starts attending school with 6 years.Pre-primary education takes 2 years with the first being learning through playyear or what is commonly referred to as “Montessori learning”.
This termoriginated from one scholar in education called Maria Montessori. She isregarded as the matron of kindergarten movement where she agitated for theconcept of learning through play (Torres, 2016).Onesimilarity between the two systems is that both provide 3 years to be spent inelementary and secondary education combined. On the issue of financing, thereis more in US where the issue of education management is left upon individualstates (Thomas, 2000).Education department in US is a state agency that co-ordinates educationmatters within a state. A similar role in Ecuador is played by ministry ofeducation.
According to Cooley (2015), education funding in USis done through the federal education reserve fund that is managed by thestate. In Ecuador, education is funded by government of Ecuador through itsfinance department. In conclusion, it can be stated that in both cases goals ofeducation are similar but policies are different based on the goals that eachpolicy is supposed to achieve. ReferencesAviles,E.
, & Simons, M. (2013) To Be Accountable in Neoliberal Times: AnExploration of Educational Policy in Ecuador. Policy Futures In Education,11(1), 1-12Cooley,A. (2015). Funding US higher education: policy making theories reviewed; Journalof Higher Education Policy and Management, 37(6), 673-681Jameson,K. (1999). Moving ‘social reform’ to centre stage: lessons from highereducation in Ecuador.
Higher Education Policy, 12(2), 123-140Johnson,M. (2017) Contemporary higher education reform in Ecuador: Implications forfaculty recruitment, hiring, and retention. Education Policy AnalysisArchives, 25, 68Post, D.(2011) Constitutional Reform and the Opportunity for Higher Education Access inEcuador Since 1950.
Education Policy Analysis Archives, 19, 20Thomas,J. (2000). Falling through the cracks: Crack-exposed children in the US publicschools: an educational policy issue.
Journal Of Education Policy, 15(5),575-583Torres,I. (2016). Policy windows for school-based health education about nutrition inEcuador: Table 1; Health Promotion International, daw037