Dr.H.L.Kaila, (2011) conducted astudy covering multi-national organizations such as petroleum, engineering, automobile, cement, power,chemical, pharmaceuticalcompanies etc. The author observesthat the managements have started believing that engineering and administrative controls alone do not provideadequate safe workplace unless Behavioral Based Safety(BBS) is practicedand unsafe behaviorof the workers is controlled in order to ensure total safety at workplaces. Andreas Lumbe Aas, (2010)investigates how selected standards are applied within an industrial contextand suggests strategies to improve their application.
His thesis focuses on thehuman part of large and complex systems. Human beings are essential in anylarge and complex system, but their complexity makes it virtually impossible topredict their behavior and impact on such systems. Safety standardsapplications should aid to handle such complexity in a safe, efficient andeffective manner. David D. Woods, LeilaJohannesen, Sidney Dekker, (2010) observed that human error is the cause ofincidents and accidents.
The authors strongly opine that the label “humanerror” is prejudicial and unspecific, and leads to system failure and inturn leads to accident. Sandy Smith, (2010) conductedsafety assessment surveys at the worksites, and made four recommendations forthe management to prevent accidents at worksite. These are, organizationcommitment towards safety, training on proactive management skillsfor senior and mid-level managers,motivation of supervisors, and active participation of employees in safety, will definitely preventaccidents. M. Dominic Cooper (2009) saysthat behavioral safety has many advocates and many critics.
In reality,like other safetymanagement interventions, behavioral safety processes require a concerted effortby all to produce desiredresults. The purposeof a behavioral safetyprocess is to reduce incidents triggered by unsafe or at-risk behaviors. To achieve this, specific behavioral problems are identified by focusing on incidents that result from theinteraction between people and their working environment.
Once these problemsare identified, attempts are made to discover which antecedents are drivingat-risk behavior, and which consequences are reinforcing or maintaining that behavior so that appropriate corrective actions can betaken. Executing the change strategyusually involves addressing the antecedents to remove barriers while theassociated safety behaviors are placed on checklists so workers can conductobservations of ongoing behavior. The results of his review show that the design of a behavioral safetyprocess is as important as the psychology of behavioral safety. Simplymeasuring behavior and providing consequences is not enough to sustain incidentreduction. Designs that incorporate daily observations, focus on workgroups instatic settings and use participative goals with multiple feedback mechanismswill reduce injuries more than others. All behavioral safety processes requirestrong management supportto help deliverthe intended benefitsand sustain them over the longerterm (Cameron &Duff, 2007; Cooper,2006a; 2006b). Kofi Annan, (2009) stronglybelieves that Safety and health is not just for specialists and professionals.It should become the concern of all people at workplaces.
In the name of globalcompetition measures like cost cutting, quicker output, better profits etc.should not cause any hazard in the work place and surroundings. M.Paswn and A.
Mukopadhyay,(2008) observe that most of the accidents are caused by the failure of people,equipment, materials or environments. The authors opined that the investigatorshould examine each event as well as the sequence of events that led to theaccident. The accident type is also important.
Their study concludes that thekey element in developing safety culture is developing a rigorous safetydiscipline that only will make the plant a safe place to work. H.L.
Kaila, (2008) has conductedover twenty-five safety awareness surveys of organizations in various locationsin India and reveals that eighty to ninety percentof accidents are triggeredby unsafe acts or behaviors. Therefore, the authoremphasizes the need of Behavior Based Safety (BBS). The author observesthat BBS has shown positive resultsin terms of safe behavior and reduction in accident rates across industries andcountries.
M.K.Pandhe, (2006) states thatthe neglect of safety aspects results in large number of fatalities in the Steel industry.
The author findsthat about 49 percent of thefatal accidents are caused in rail and road movements while the secondlargest killer is the hitting of a worker by any objectin the Plant. About 10 percent of accidents are caused due to falling fromheight. Burns, explosion, metal spillage, suffocation, electrocution and gas poisoninghave also led to loss of preciouslives of the workers.An interesting observation by the author in this context is that a dubiouspractice is prevailing in the steel industry is to allow a worker to remain athome and mark him present to preventreporting of the accident. The author is of the view that studying of non-reportable accidents may help in increasing the safety standards in the industry.