In separate terms; Simulation on its own is defined as the control, arrangement, movement and operation of a model which duplicates the properties of a system or predicts its actual behavior and in other words, simulation brings a model to life, the moving of an idea from concept into reality over time. In the other hand, modelling which is represented by a model is defined as a simplified representation of a system used to explain the workings and to promote the perceiving of a real world event or system. A model can either be mathematical, logical and or physical representation.
Modelling and simulation can be defined as a discipline which basically deals with the evaluation and development of the level of perceiving the interaction of the system as a whole or a portion of a system. Modelling and simulation is highly achievable by simulation (the running of a model composed of space and time dimension), prior to the design of a model itself. (1)
The early work in modelling and simulation, more specifically on simulation dates back to the early 1940s during the world war II when a number of mathematicians Herman Kahn, Edward Teller, John Von Neumann, Stanislaw Ulan and the physicists working on the Manhattan project to study the neutron scattering, all developed a method having a name Monte Carlo. A method which was known for the generation of the sample data depending on distribution for numerical results since it is a computerized mathematical practical aspect. In the 1950s, computer simulation was not having beneficial use because of its slowness to acquire needed results, required a number of skilled people to operate and mostly, the high costs. It was in the 1960s when there was, the development of first special-purpose simulation language and the period when computer systems were primarily batch system. Languages such as SIMSCRIPT at the Rand Corporation by Harry Markowitz were developed in order to simulate inventory problems they had. In 1961, the Gordon simulator was presented by the IBM to a system design company (Norden), which also made provision of hardware and software. In a space of 6 weeks, the team managed to build a model, simulate the concept and get results. It’s late that year when Geoffrey Gorden presented a new tool that was used to build a system to distribute weather changes information to general aviation for the FAA. (1)
1970s dates a period when the research on mathematical foundations of simulation commenced. The 4th and 5th conference were for the last time held in New York, in which the 1st GPSS(General Purpose Simulation System) tutorial was debated on by Tom Schriber and Winter Simulation Conference on the 4th and 5th conference respectively. In 1976, the first SIMSCRIPT tutorial presented by Ed Russell was published and in a conference that was held in 1977 two sessions on military and agricultural systems were added. Simulation was rarely applied but educated to industrial engineers in schools as a topic. Number of sessions increased rapidly 12 sessions, 40 sessions, 60 sessions in 1967, 1977 and 1983 respectively. Failures of simulation and problems associated with managing simulation were discussed in 1978 at the Panel discussion, Miami. There were two fears of simulation in 1980s, namely; Firstly, it was extremely complicated and was only managed by experts and secondly, because of debugging and programming, simulation took a very long time. Computerized systems increased from a few to a great number in the late 1970s to early 1980s.
Pc based simulation software; object-oriented programming and graphical user interface came to existence in the 1980s from their development. Simulation software emerged powerful tool in 83s after the development of SLAMII by Pritsker, which provided 3 distinct modelling methods; discrete event, network and continuous and the flexibility to employ any fusion of them into one. So was the development of CINEMAIV, which provided system modelling from the animation software. 1n 1984 was the development of the simulation language built for modelling manufacturing systems which was ordinal of one.
In 1990s was the period when Markov-chain approaches, fancy animated graphics, web-based simulation and simulation-based optimization methods of modelling and simulation were developed. Simulation became eyely as a tool and its strength in the middle 1990s, though some companies faced challenges. So are models, which were highly used to design new plants and to formulate a procedure for the flow of work in newly built facilities. Simulation became quicker and cheaper as it was enhanced by technology and fast response to the model constructors that were designed. Software was conspicuous in 1998 as it provided a more advanced build platform such as windows interface.
Of recent years, software enables the users to perform modelling or produce models, to animate any manufacturing systems and execute them due to the advancement of simulation. For example, a complex 2000 foot conveyor can be put into model in minutes. Simulation of nowadays supports numerous features such as easier, instant changes thus minimizing errors, 3-dimensional graphics which are automatically created when the designer inputs date and real time animation to communicate results. Modelling and simulation has significantly developed and to be more important in future to cease challenges faced by companies, hence improving their standard in the competitive industry. (2)
· Minimize risk and evade dangerous experiments: Some real world systems such as bombs and missile launch may put people’s lives in jeopardy thus performing simulation may provide safety to human lives. And some real time systems are so complex that cannot be manageable by human but rather through modelling and simulation thus minimizing the risks of failure.
· Visualization of the proposed plan: modelling and simulation provides a clear picture of the system actually execution and enables the detection of errors or faults of a system.
· Minimize cost of experiments and wise investments: simulation is more like carrying out a feasibility study which determines whether to go ahead or not with the proposed project. So in this case, after carrying out a simulation it provides a clear indication of what is to be purchased. And frequent results can be obtained in order to justify purchases thus minimizing unnecessary costs. And it is found out that modelling and simulation is 1 % cheaper than the actually implementation of the design.
· Experimental behavior of a system may be difficult to understand due to disturbances but through modelling and simulation, disturbances such as noise can be avoided and in such cases leading to production of better results.
· Develop understanding: It provides better perceiving of the execution and the interaction of portions or variables that construct a complex system. And understanding of how a particular system would really operate in real world.
In consideration of the fact that modelling and simulation is a powerful discipline, it is then widely applied in a range of areas.
· Applied in military
· Training and support
· Design of semiconductors
· Health care for medical analysis and simulation
· Computer simulations and animation
· Manufacturing application: In warehouses for the analysis of storing goods and their retrieval.
· Construction engineering: for the dams embankment
· Automation and robotics: More especially during the design of robots
· Haptic FMRI: In which simulation and modelling is applied on day to day tasks in limited MRI scanner workspaces, haptic FMRI utilizes advanced workspace compression algorithm and haptic rendering in order to achieve its mandate.
1. About Us: Tutorialspoint. Tutorialspoint. Online Cited: May 30, 2017. http://www.tutorialspoint.com/software_engineering/software_design_basics.htm.
2. Online Cited: January 2, 2018. Introduction%20to%20Simulation%20and%20Modeling%20%20Historical%20Perspective.html.