Communication level of cognitive development and find a way

is a significant tool that is needed for professionals and patients to interact
with each other, it is a process where individuals exchange and transmit
information by speaking or writing. Effective communication is where individuals
respond to the information, thereby completing the two-way flow nature of

There is
numerous amount of communication theories which may be used in health and
social care context, such as cognitive learning, humanistic, psychodynamic
psychoanalysis and social learning theories.

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theory emphasis on how learners organise their perception; confront a learning
situation; retain and retrieve information; and manage their emotions, all
which are affected by cultural and social influences (Braun art & Braungart,
2007, p.67).

theory focuses on development by which infants, and then children are able to
grow into individuals who can reason. It is simply a scientific study that of
the mind as an information processor and growth of human intelligence. This
approach is used to help people figure out the underlying problem, then to help
individual to see their problem in a different perspective. It is done by
helping the individual to change their train of thought and process things
better. Therefore, the healthcare professional needs to determine the patients
level of cognitive development and find a way for the individual to see and
process them imagine in a different way. This may be done by changing a patient
environment, change their way of thinking and regulate their emotions and
assist to solve solutions.


important approach is psychodynamic approach which is frequently used within the
social care sector, it is a method which can be used by professionals to help
those who have had a distraught past. This approach is aimed at patients who
have had a troubled past and suffer from anxiety, attachment and bad
nightmares. With this type of approach professionals will help them understand
the issues and assist them in overcoming them through different types of
analysis and therapy. An example of this is being used with a social care
setting, could be a social worker and a foster carer helping a troubled infant.
By using different activities, the carer can find out what the issue might be,
such as separation anxiety. The child may use activities such as art therapy
and express themselves and concern, they can identify why they get anxious when
people leave, and a way of coping with it or how to overcome it.




sample of pictures that show some ways used
to communicate in the care sector.

skills like summarising skills; which enables you to extract the most significant
points of what has been said. Effective listening; which is used in
counselling, training and conflict resolution. This requires a professional to
fully concentrate, understand, respond and then remember what is being said. Reflecting,
being observant and also questioning skills which can either be open or closed.
Open- ended questions, allow the expression of feelings and opinions by service
users (Dickson & Hargie, 2003) Professionals should show all these skills in
a health and social care sector to receive effective communication.


In the hospital
Appointment case study the nurse did not effectively communication with Joanna.
Effective communication may be understood as occurring when the intended
meaning of the sender and perceived meaning of the receiver are similar (Dixon
and O’ Hara, ND) The nurse did not communicate with instructions, neither did
she summarise to Joanna how they would measure her blood pressure and weight,
she never clarify to Joanna whether she understood how the procure would follow
but overloaded Joanna with information. This left Joanna feeling confused and uncertain
of what was happening. The nurse failed to show a two-way flow of communication.
Both doctor and consultant didn’t utilise effective listening and observation
skills. The consultant choice of language to speak to the patient was not appropriate
and the attitude exposed to the patient was disgusting.

The poor
practice of the doctor when Joanna couldn’t understand the questions and being inpatient,
shows the doctor lacked communication skills in many ways.


At my work
place I use the following skills: such as active listening with a service user
who had troubled hearing and could barely understand what I was saying, though difficult
to communicate I use active listening by sitting close to my service user and
allowing there to be no interference. I greet her daily with a smile and explain
how they day will go slowly and clearly allowing her to understand what I am
saying. I repeatedly say it, to avoid any confusion and always clarify if she


Also, I use
reflecting style by taking in what the service user has said and then summarise
it. I sometimes if difficult to summarise or paraphrase I draw pictorial images
if she would like a snack or something to drink, this enables her to point at
which one or simply state which item she prefers. To conclude healthcare workers,
need to understand patient needs and if not suited must learn how to be suited
for them, so they can engage with the service user effectively.






communication is the development by which individuals exchange information,
feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is a face to
face communication. interpersonal communication with healthcare professional
are able to improve care and treatment outcomes. Therefore, interpersonal communication
between healthcare professionals and patients is for them to adhere to right
and wrong standards while always following the correct interaction rules of
assisting and treating patients as they would like to be treated.


However, there
are common barriers to interpersonal communication it may assist of gender,
power, dignity or in appropriate language used between healthcare professional and
a patient. An example of this may be cultural differences, the concept of
personal space may differ in spite of a religion or culture of an individual. The
norm of social interaction varies and this may limit a healthcare professional
from treating the patient. Therefore, effective communication in HSC is mandatory.
It promotes such factors like trust, counselling, privacy needed for a patient
to feel comfortable, with a professional.


In the hospital
appointment case sceniro, the doctor showed no empathy and exercised inappropriate
manners towards he’s patient. He’s language was inappropriate because he rudely
asked Joanna ‘what on earth is your problem?’. Joanna struggled with English and
the doctor was unable to apply non-verbal communication skills. I believe that
neither the doctor or the nurse had the basic communication skills to assist
their patients, they lacked in many ways and patients like Joanna should complain
about the service they received and apologise to Joanna.


theories such as similarity theory, social exchange theory, uncertainty
reduction theory may assist to overcome such barriers in the healthcare


Social exchange
theory, according (Foa and Foa, 1975) is based on principles of reward and cost
because people are hedonistic as they seek to maximise pleasure and minimise
pain. According to this theory people examine the power of relations,
healthcare professionals may use this theory as a way of interaction with
service users to make them agree in their care plans.


similarity theory suggest that people grow closer towards those similar to
themselves in attitudes, personality, interest and attractiveness rather than
someone who is dissimilar.  Therefore,
having staff that are familiarity with some of the clients or patients culture,
religion, background, and understand their values and ways to help them meet their
needs can help in excluding cultural background.







Different strategies
and techniques are vital as every patient may have different needs. For example,
those with disabilities use certain form of interactions such as non-verbal
communication, lip-reading, slang expression or sign language. Persons with
disability require additional support then conventional methods of communications.
For example, for hearing disability client; the healthcare worker should speak
normally and clearly enable for the patient to lip-read, worker should also
display pictures and write messages to make it easier for the client to
understand, use sign language or a sign language interpreter if necessary and provide
hearing aids to help the client.


In addition,
there are other techniques used as strategies for overcoming barriers within
communication such as sign language which involves the use of hands, body, face
and head it has its own type of grammar and structure and it is the most commonly
used and effective for blind people similar to Makaton which is a plain
language used in the UK based on everyday words using facial expression, signs
, gestures and eye contact to empower people with communication difficulties to
communicate.  Braille is also a method
used for blind people who have the knowledge to enable them to read and write
(Braille 1821). Some of these strategies are commonly used however may fail due
to some factors like the training of healthcare worker and the understanding of
these special skills.


To overcome
the barriers that appeared in the hospital appointment case non-verbal communication
was necessary.  The patient rights and responsibility
were not adhered to, the doctor should have used the Makaton technique with Joanna
who had been put down with low self-esteem. Instead the doctor acted in appropriate
by pulling sharply away from Joanna when he could have maintained eye contact, adopt
an open posture and lean towards the other. However, the doctor may have not
been taught in the use of this technique. Therefore, showing that it is
important and essential for healthcare and social care settings to be trained
with all types of communication techniques to avoid misunderstanding and enhance
quality of care in their sector.