Communicationis a significant tool that is needed for professionals and patients to interactwith each other, it is a process where individuals exchange and transmitinformation by speaking or writing. Effective communication is where individualsrespond to the information, thereby completing the two-way flow nature ofcommunication.There isnumerous amount of communication theories which may be used in health andsocial care context, such as cognitive learning, humanistic, psychodynamicpsychoanalysis and social learning theories. Cognitivetheory emphasis on how learners organise their perception; confront a learningsituation; retain and retrieve information; and manage their emotions, allwhich are affected by cultural and social influences (Braun art & Braungart,2007, p.67).Cognitivetheory focuses on development by which infants, and then children are able togrow into individuals who can reason. It is simply a scientific study that ofthe mind as an information processor and growth of human intelligence.
Thisapproach is used to help people figure out the underlying problem, then to helpindividual to see their problem in a different perspective. It is done byhelping the individual to change their train of thought and process thingsbetter. Therefore, the healthcare professional needs to determine the patientslevel of cognitive development and find a way for the individual to see andprocess them imagine in a different way. This may be done by changing a patientenvironment, change their way of thinking and regulate their emotions andassist to solve solutions. Anotherimportant approach is psychodynamic approach which is frequently used within thesocial care sector, it is a method which can be used by professionals to helpthose who have had a distraught past. This approach is aimed at patients whohave had a troubled past and suffer from anxiety, attachment and badnightmares. With this type of approach professionals will help them understandthe issues and assist them in overcoming them through different types ofanalysis and therapy. An example of this is being used with a social caresetting, could be a social worker and a foster carer helping a troubled infant.
By using different activities, the carer can find out what the issue might be,such as separation anxiety. The child may use activities such as art therapyand express themselves and concern, they can identify why they get anxious whenpeople leave, and a way of coping with it or how to overcome it. 1.2 sample of pictures that show some ways usedto communicate in the care sector.Communicationskills like summarising skills; which enables you to extract the most significantpoints of what has been said. Effective listening; which is used incounselling, training and conflict resolution.
This requires a professional tofully concentrate, understand, respond and then remember what is being said. Reflecting,being observant and also questioning skills which can either be open or closed.Open- ended questions, allow the expression of feelings and opinions by serviceusers (Dickson & Hargie, 2003) Professionals should show all these skills ina health and social care sector to receive effective communication. In the hospitalAppointment case study the nurse did not effectively communication with Joanna.Effective communication may be understood as occurring when the intendedmeaning of the sender and perceived meaning of the receiver are similar (Dixonand O’ Hara, ND) The nurse did not communicate with instructions, neither didshe summarise to Joanna how they would measure her blood pressure and weight,she never clarify to Joanna whether she understood how the procure would followbut overloaded Joanna with information. This left Joanna feeling confused and uncertainof what was happening.
The nurse failed to show a two-way flow of communication.Both doctor and consultant didn’t utilise effective listening and observationskills. The consultant choice of language to speak to the patient was not appropriateand the attitude exposed to the patient was disgusting.
The poorpractice of the doctor when Joanna couldn’t understand the questions and being inpatient,shows the doctor lacked communication skills in many ways. At my workplace I use the following skills: such as active listening with a service userwho had troubled hearing and could barely understand what I was saying, though difficultto communicate I use active listening by sitting close to my service user andallowing there to be no interference. I greet her daily with a smile and explainhow they day will go slowly and clearly allowing her to understand what I amsaying. I repeatedly say it, to avoid any confusion and always clarify if sheunderstands. Also, I usereflecting style by taking in what the service user has said and then summariseit. I sometimes if difficult to summarise or paraphrase I draw pictorial imagesif she would like a snack or something to drink, this enables her to point atwhich one or simply state which item she prefers.
To conclude healthcare workers,need to understand patient needs and if not suited must learn how to be suitedfor them, so they can engage with the service user effectively. 1.3Interpersonalcommunication is the development by which individuals exchange information,feelings, and meaning through verbal and non-verbal messages: it is a face toface communication. interpersonal communication with healthcare professionalare able to improve care and treatment outcomes. Therefore, interpersonal communicationbetween healthcare professionals and patients is for them to adhere to rightand wrong standards while always following the correct interaction rules ofassisting and treating patients as they would like to be treated.
However, thereare common barriers to interpersonal communication it may assist of gender,power, dignity or in appropriate language used between healthcare professional anda patient. An example of this may be cultural differences, the concept ofpersonal space may differ in spite of a religion or culture of an individual. Thenorm of social interaction varies and this may limit a healthcare professionalfrom treating the patient. Therefore, effective communication in HSC is mandatory.It promotes such factors like trust, counselling, privacy needed for a patientto feel comfortable, with a professional. In the hospitalappointment case sceniro, the doctor showed no empathy and exercised inappropriatemanners towards he’s patient.
He’s language was inappropriate because he rudelyasked Joanna ‘what on earth is your problem?’. Joanna struggled with English andthe doctor was unable to apply non-verbal communication skills. I believe thatneither the doctor or the nurse had the basic communication skills to assisttheir patients, they lacked in many ways and patients like Joanna should complainabout the service they received and apologise to Joanna.
Furthermore,theories such as similarity theory, social exchange theory, uncertaintyreduction theory may assist to overcome such barriers in the healthcaresettings. Social exchangetheory, according (Foa and Foa, 1975) is based on principles of reward and costbecause people are hedonistic as they seek to maximise pleasure and minimisepain. According to this theory people examine the power of relations,healthcare professionals may use this theory as a way of interaction withservice users to make them agree in their care plans. Whereas,similarity theory suggest that people grow closer towards those similar tothemselves in attitudes, personality, interest and attractiveness rather thansomeone who is dissimilar. Therefore,having staff that are familiarity with some of the clients or patients culture,religion, background, and understand their values and ways to help them meet theirneeds can help in excluding cultural background. 1.4 Different strategiesand techniques are vital as every patient may have different needs. For example,those with disabilities use certain form of interactions such as non-verbalcommunication, lip-reading, slang expression or sign language.
Persons withdisability require additional support then conventional methods of communications.For example, for hearing disability client; the healthcare worker should speaknormally and clearly enable for the patient to lip-read, worker should alsodisplay pictures and write messages to make it easier for the client tounderstand, use sign language or a sign language interpreter if necessary and providehearing aids to help the client. In addition,there are other techniques used as strategies for overcoming barriers withincommunication such as sign language which involves the use of hands, body, faceand head it has its own type of grammar and structure and it is the most commonlyused and effective for blind people similar to Makaton which is a plainlanguage used in the UK based on everyday words using facial expression, signs, gestures and eye contact to empower people with communication difficulties tocommunicate.
Braille is also a methodused for blind people who have the knowledge to enable them to read and write(Braille 1821). Some of these strategies are commonly used however may fail dueto some factors like the training of healthcare worker and the understanding ofthese special skills. To overcomethe barriers that appeared in the hospital appointment case non-verbal communicationwas necessary. The patient rights and responsibilitywere not adhered to, the doctor should have used the Makaton technique with Joannawho had been put down with low self-esteem.
Instead the doctor acted in appropriateby pulling sharply away from Joanna when he could have maintained eye contact, adoptan open posture and lean towards the other. However, the doctor may have notbeen taught in the use of this technique. Therefore, showing that it isimportant and essential for healthcare and social care settings to be trainedwith all types of communication techniques to avoid misunderstanding and enhancequality of care in their sector.