Colon , fungus, plants, viruses, and yeast Synthesizing nanoparticles

Colon cancer is the third leading causes ofcancer deaths in the United States.

Colon cancer is on rise in developingcountries and is gaining importance. Although mortality and morbidity rates ofcolon cancer decreased in US over the past decade due to improved awareness andscreening, there will be an estimated 93,090 new cases of colon cancer in year2015. Prevalence is far more for colon cancer as 5% of Americans would bediagnosed with colon cancer in life time.

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Genetics are main cause for coloncancer incidence. But, environmental factors and diet have an important effecton the colon cancer incidence and development (Sunkara et al., 2015). In addition, Carcinogenesis is a multistagemultistep process.

Animal models that mimic human carcinogenesis are importantto determine dose and to test the efficacy, safety of chemopreventive agents.Chemical induction of colon cancer in rodents by azoxymethane was a widelystudied model for testing efficacy of dietary chemopreventive agents (Reddy, 2004). nanoparticles are of great interest due to theirnovel physicochemical, magnetic, and optoelectronic properties that aregoverned by their size, shape, and size distribution. It is predominantly thenanoparticles’ extremely small size and large surface area to volume ratio thatleads to the significant differences in properties (e.g., biological, catalyticactivity, mechanical properties, melting point optical absorption, thermal andelectrical conductivity) not seen in the same material at larger scales intheir bulk form (Perezet al.

, 2005).Moreover, biological synthesis has emerged as anattractive alternative to traditional synthesis methods for producing nanoparticles.Biosynthesis involves using an environment-friendly green chemistry basedapproach that employs unicellular and multicellular biological entities such asactinomycetes, bacteria , fungus, plants, viruses, and yeast  Synthesizing nanoparticles via biologicalentities acting as biological factories offers a clean, nontoxic andenvironment-friendly method of synthesizing nanoparticles with a wide range ofsizes, shapes, compositions, and physicochemical properties (Mohanpuria et al., 2008 ).  Inrecent years, the convergence of nanometre size scale technologies andbiological technologies has created the new field of nano biotechnology. At thefront of this field is the synthesis of nano metre size scale particles viabiological entities like plant cells, viruses, bacteria and others. In thisstudy we will show these new dimensions of this filed by studying and characterizationthe synthesis and effects of biologically synthesized titanium dioxidenanoparticles (TDNPs) in combination with other promising drugs for thetreatment of cancers especially colon cancer.

Our results will provide anexperimental basis for production of titanium dioxide nanoparticlesbiologically, understanding and evaluation its anticancer activity either aloneor in combination with other new drugs.