Chase this was mainly farming which later on changed

Chase Silvers

Derrell Cox II.

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Anth 3110

11/19/2017

The Arapaho
Indians

            The Arapaho Indians, who also refer
to themselves as the  “Inuna-Ina,”
are a Native American tribe who are known to have originated in the plains of
Colorado and Wyoming. The Arapaho Indians are closely related to a tribe known
as the Cheyenne.  These cultural groups
have loose ties with Lakota and Dakota (Henderson 13). The language they speak
is known as Heenetiit, and it is referred to as an Algonquian language. The
other tribes who speak the Algonquian are the Blackfeet and the Cheyenne through
the dialects that they use are different (Fowler, 365)

            The
Arapaho live a lifestyle focused on agriculture; this was mainly farming which
later on changed to animal keeping. Later on, in the early 1800s, this
population migrated from this region to the Great Plains where they completely
changed their lifestyle, and they became nomadic hunters. The people of this
tribe lived in homes that were tent-like, and they were known as tepee (Fowler,
367).  These houses were constructed through
the use of wooden poles that were covered with animal skins or hides because
they are weatherproof. Inside the houses, there were limited furnishings and
the skins from buffalos were used for seating, covers, and bedding. They
supplemented these meats with roots, herbs as well as wild vegetables
(Ramasubramanian 250). Alongside that, they also used to consume wild berries
and fruits to supplement their diets. 
Regarding clothing’s, most women of this indigenous group wore
knee-length dresses accompanied with leggings. Men, on the other hand, wore
breech clothes fringed buckskin tunics and leggings.

            Most people have come to understand
this culture through the use of the media. The media has been up to task role
to people who were probably not aware of the existence of this culture.

However, based on the information that has been presented about these groups in
the media, it is evident that this group has been stereotyped (Henderson 13). The
perception that they have about their own culture has not considerably
changed.  Even though the media has
placed a lot of efforts to justify the issue of racism, as well as mistreatment
among Indians especially those in northern Arapahos, these groups still face a
lot of injustices that affect the way they are perceived in the society.

Northern
Arapaho culture

Language

            In the year 1850s, the Arapaho
Indians split into two significant tribes to the Northern Arapaho and the
Southern Arapaho. This tribe has a joint sovereignty with the tribe of Eastern
Shoshone over the Wind River reservation in Wyoming. The language that is
spoken by people in the northern Arapaho is known as the Arapaho language
(Bauman 13). The language that they speak on most occasions contains very long
and complex verbs, and this makes it be regarded as a polysynthetic language.

Tradition

             The Northern Arapaho tribe holds powerful
traditions. The first aspect of their culture can be seen in their tenure
system where the community or the tribe owns land in general. No one can claim
a land is his since the whole tribe shares and defends their territory
(Anderson 156). Regarding division of labor, women who are not married always
have close ties with their mothers and help in performing household chores, and
on the other hand, the unmarried men performed tasks such as taking care of
houses, artwork, and hunting. Married women cooked and performed household
activities. Men who were married acted as the gatekeepers of the community by
performing tasks such as caring out functions devoted to their religions,
taking care of horses, maintaining security, hunting among others. The kinship
of the tribe is bilateral, and there were two types of marriages in this
community which included the arranged marriages and marriages where couples
would move together in secret (Leavitt 45). Relatives cannot marry each other.

The type of dress codes that they wear is usually unique. This community has a
strong culture, which they have lived to appreciate.

Challenges
Faced by Northern Arapaho Tribe

            Since their existence, this
community has been facing a lot of problems that have affected how they relate
to others in their society. The first challenge that this community has been
facing is the fear of discrimination that is common among Indians living in
America. The other problem is identity and assimilation. Assimilation has resulted
in a lot of dilemmas among these groups of people who have been in difficulties
on whether they can adopt modern life or they can continue with their native
lives. The community has also faced a lot of challenges in how they relate to
people because according to them, they are always looked down upon by many
people (Anderson 178).

How media
further challenges the growth of understanding native culture

Most Native
American culture faces a lot of invisibility in the media.  The media has played a role in developing
stereotypes among people of the Native American cultures. Native people in
American cultures are always portrayed as poor people who were illiterate as
well as individuals who had very odd cultural practices (Bauman 13). Native
Americans are still narrowly represented in the media and are considered to be
the most underrepresented in the media. The underrepresentation is also
demonstrated by the fact that most natives of America usually do not
interrelate with everyday people most of the times.

Media
Representation

Native Culture in America outside reservation

            Most people of native descent in
America live in their tribal lands commonly known as reservations. Within
America, those in living conditions known as reservations are always compared
to those living in the third world (Leavitt 49).  The states that the natives face in the
reservations have made them come out to live in cities as they follow some
important aspects of human development. However, this has not been very easy
because they are stereotyped especially in the media.

Cultivation
theory

The media has
an impact on people and its impacts might be indirect but slowly these effects
are always cumulative implying that they play a role in cultivating attitudes
as well as values of people within a particular culture (Fowler 375). For
example, most people believe that the Arapaho Indians are illiterate because
the media has brought them out this way especially because most people do not
have a direct contact with this indigenous group. People are always convinced
with what they see in the media, and as long as an aspect is displayed
negatively, it will always remain negative.

Sports and
Universities using tribal mascots

            More harm than good is always
created through the use of tribal mascots by universities as well as in sports.

This always has a negative impact on the native cultures, to the point that it
becomes a challenge, especially to native youths. Most people in native
cultures have been stereotypes to be mascots implying that they are known to
bring certain luck to some groups especially in sports (Ramasubramanian 256).

However, this has a negative impact because instead of giving honor to native
tribes, it is considered to bring a lot of social and psychological harm. The
stereotypes that the natives receive has an impact in most of their lives
especially based on the issue of misrepresentation. Chief Sutton said in class
that it is better that they get some recognition rather than none at all.

Damage of
misrepresentation

            The damage of misrepresentation is
normally witnessed among natives most of the time. The media has visibly
misrepresented natives thus creating stereotypes and also inequality within the
country.

Missing white
woman syndrome

            Missing white woman syndrome is
known as various instances where the media focuses on bringing the issues
affecting the whites to the limelight rather than equally bringing out all
races. Missing white woman syndrome has resulted in a lot of damages especially
to the Native Americans. Media coverage on the natives is very rare even if
injustices and crimes are committed against them (Fielding 5).  Natives such as Indians are more than 100,
000 in around 14 states within the U.S. However, it is only around 0-2% people
of these populations who are represented in the media. When comparing these
statistics, it is very evident that the missing white woman syndrome is still
common and the whites are still dominating other races in the US (Fowler 365).  Most media platforms address issues affecting
the whites while neglecting issues affecting other races. This bias has cost a
lot of stereotypes, and also it has affected the well being of very many
people.

The
discriminations that the natives have been subjected to be contributed by the
media (Ramasubramanian 250). The media portrays the natives as always being
backward; this is incorrect because there are a lot of good aspects of the
native culture.

Conclusion

            In conclusion, considering the
discussions in this paper, one fact that is very clear is that the media is a
potent tool within a country because it plays a role in influencing people’s
views and perceptions. It is apparent that the media has a role in stereotyping
the Arapaho Indians and this has a great impact on the perception that others
have about them. To gain recognition through the media, the natives should step
out and become firm about their culture. They should ensure that they clear all
the stereotypes that exist as a result of the media. Moreover, natives should
ensure that they push for equal representation through the media.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Works cited

Anderson,
Garyn Clayton. “Warrior Nations: The United States and Indian
Peoples.” Indiana Magazine of History (2014).

Bauman,
Henderson. “A housing analysis of the Cheyenne and Arapaho of Oklahoma
3-1.” environmental design research: volume one selected papers
(2016): 13.

Fielding,
Julien R. “Native American religion and film: interviews with Chris Eyre
and Sherman Alexie.” Journal of Religion & Film 7.1
(2016): 5.

Fowler,
Loretta. “Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives: From the 1851 Treaty to the
Sand Creek Massacre.” The American Indian Quarterly 39.4
(2015): 364-390.

Leavitt,
Peter A., et al. “Frozen in Time”: The Impact of Native American
Media     Representations on Identity and
Self?Understanding.”
Journal of Social Issues 71.1     (2015):
39-53.

Ramasubramanian,
Srividya. “Media-based strategies to reduce racial stereotypes activated
by news stories.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84.2
(2017): 249-264.