Chase SilversDerrell Cox II.Anth 311011/19/2017The ArapahoIndians The Arapaho Indians, who also referto themselves as the “Inuna-Ina,”are a Native American tribe who are known to have originated in the plains ofColorado and Wyoming. The Arapaho Indians are closely related to a tribe knownas the Cheyenne. These cultural groupshave loose ties with Lakota and Dakota (Henderson 13).
The language they speakis known as Heenetiit, and it is referred to as an Algonquian language. Theother tribes who speak the Algonquian are the Blackfeet and the Cheyenne throughthe dialects that they use are different (Fowler, 365) TheArapaho live a lifestyle focused on agriculture; this was mainly farming whichlater on changed to animal keeping. Later on, in the early 1800s, thispopulation migrated from this region to the Great Plains where they completelychanged their lifestyle, and they became nomadic hunters. The people of thistribe lived in homes that were tent-like, and they were known as tepee (Fowler,367).
These houses were constructed throughthe use of wooden poles that were covered with animal skins or hides becausethey are weatherproof. Inside the houses, there were limited furnishings andthe skins from buffalos were used for seating, covers, and bedding. Theysupplemented these meats with roots, herbs as well as wild vegetables(Ramasubramanian 250). Alongside that, they also used to consume wild berriesand fruits to supplement their diets. Regarding clothing’s, most women of this indigenous group woreknee-length dresses accompanied with leggings. Men, on the other hand, worebreech clothes fringed buckskin tunics and leggings. Most people have come to understandthis culture through the use of the media. The media has been up to task roleto people who were probably not aware of the existence of this culture.
However, based on the information that has been presented about these groups inthe media, it is evident that this group has been stereotyped (Henderson 13). Theperception that they have about their own culture has not considerablychanged. Even though the media hasplaced a lot of efforts to justify the issue of racism, as well as mistreatmentamong Indians especially those in northern Arapahos, these groups still face alot of injustices that affect the way they are perceived in the society. NorthernArapaho cultureLanguage In the year 1850s, the ArapahoIndians split into two significant tribes to the Northern Arapaho and theSouthern Arapaho.
This tribe has a joint sovereignty with the tribe of EasternShoshone over the Wind River reservation in Wyoming. The language that isspoken by people in the northern Arapaho is known as the Arapaho language(Bauman 13). The language that they speak on most occasions contains very longand complex verbs, and this makes it be regarded as a polysynthetic language. Tradition The Northern Arapaho tribe holds powerfultraditions. The first aspect of their culture can be seen in their tenuresystem where the community or the tribe owns land in general.
No one can claima land is his since the whole tribe shares and defends their territory(Anderson 156). Regarding division of labor, women who are not married alwayshave close ties with their mothers and help in performing household chores, andon the other hand, the unmarried men performed tasks such as taking care ofhouses, artwork, and hunting. Married women cooked and performed householdactivities. Men who were married acted as the gatekeepers of the community byperforming tasks such as caring out functions devoted to their religions,taking care of horses, maintaining security, hunting among others. The kinshipof the tribe is bilateral, and there were two types of marriages in thiscommunity which included the arranged marriages and marriages where coupleswould move together in secret (Leavitt 45).
Relatives cannot marry each other.The type of dress codes that they wear is usually unique. This community has astrong culture, which they have lived to appreciate. ChallengesFaced by Northern Arapaho Tribe Since their existence, thiscommunity has been facing a lot of problems that have affected how they relateto others in their society. The first challenge that this community has beenfacing is the fear of discrimination that is common among Indians living inAmerica. The other problem is identity and assimilation. Assimilation has resultedin a lot of dilemmas among these groups of people who have been in difficultieson whether they can adopt modern life or they can continue with their nativelives. The community has also faced a lot of challenges in how they relate topeople because according to them, they are always looked down upon by manypeople (Anderson 178).
How mediafurther challenges the growth of understanding native cultureMost NativeAmerican culture faces a lot of invisibility in the media. The media has played a role in developingstereotypes among people of the Native American cultures. Native people inAmerican cultures are always portrayed as poor people who were illiterate aswell as individuals who had very odd cultural practices (Bauman 13). NativeAmericans are still narrowly represented in the media and are considered to bethe most underrepresented in the media. The underrepresentation is alsodemonstrated by the fact that most natives of America usually do notinterrelate with everyday people most of the times.MediaRepresentationNative Culture in America outside reservation Most people of native descent inAmerica live in their tribal lands commonly known as reservations.
WithinAmerica, those in living conditions known as reservations are always comparedto those living in the third world (Leavitt 49). The states that the natives face in thereservations have made them come out to live in cities as they follow someimportant aspects of human development. However, this has not been very easybecause they are stereotyped especially in the media. Cultivationtheory The media hasan impact on people and its impacts might be indirect but slowly these effectsare always cumulative implying that they play a role in cultivating attitudesas well as values of people within a particular culture (Fowler 375). Forexample, most people believe that the Arapaho Indians are illiterate becausethe media has brought them out this way especially because most people do nothave a direct contact with this indigenous group. People are always convincedwith what they see in the media, and as long as an aspect is displayednegatively, it will always remain negative.
Sports andUniversities using tribal mascots More harm than good is alwayscreated through the use of tribal mascots by universities as well as in sports.This always has a negative impact on the native cultures, to the point that itbecomes a challenge, especially to native youths. Most people in nativecultures have been stereotypes to be mascots implying that they are known tobring certain luck to some groups especially in sports (Ramasubramanian 256).However, this has a negative impact because instead of giving honor to nativetribes, it is considered to bring a lot of social and psychological harm. Thestereotypes that the natives receive has an impact in most of their livesespecially based on the issue of misrepresentation. Chief Sutton said in classthat it is better that they get some recognition rather than none at all. Damage ofmisrepresentation The damage of misrepresentation isnormally witnessed among natives most of the time. The media has visiblymisrepresented natives thus creating stereotypes and also inequality within thecountry.
Missing whitewoman syndrome Missing white woman syndrome isknown as various instances where the media focuses on bringing the issuesaffecting the whites to the limelight rather than equally bringing out allraces. Missing white woman syndrome has resulted in a lot of damages especiallyto the Native Americans. Media coverage on the natives is very rare even ifinjustices and crimes are committed against them (Fielding 5). Natives such as Indians are more than 100,000 in around 14 states within the U.S. However, it is only around 0-2% peopleof these populations who are represented in the media.
When comparing thesestatistics, it is very evident that the missing white woman syndrome is stillcommon and the whites are still dominating other races in the US (Fowler 365). Most media platforms address issues affectingthe whites while neglecting issues affecting other races. This bias has cost alot of stereotypes, and also it has affected the well being of very manypeople. Thediscriminations that the natives have been subjected to be contributed by themedia (Ramasubramanian 250). The media portrays the natives as always beingbackward; this is incorrect because there are a lot of good aspects of thenative culture.Conclusion In conclusion, considering thediscussions in this paper, one fact that is very clear is that the media is apotent tool within a country because it plays a role in influencing people’sviews and perceptions. It is apparent that the media has a role in stereotypingthe Arapaho Indians and this has a great impact on the perception that othershave about them.
To gain recognition through the media, the natives should stepout and become firm about their culture. They should ensure that they clear allthe stereotypes that exist as a result of the media. Moreover, natives shouldensure that they push for equal representation through the media. Works citedAnderson,Garyn Clayton. “Warrior Nations: The United States and IndianPeoples.” Indiana Magazine of History (2014).Bauman,Henderson.
“A housing analysis of the Cheyenne and Arapaho of Oklahoma3-1.” environmental design research: volume one selected papers(2016): 13.Fielding,Julien R. “Native American religion and film: interviews with Chris Eyreand Sherman Alexie.” Journal of Religion & Film 7.1(2016): 5.Fowler,Loretta.
“Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives: From the 1851 Treaty to theSand Creek Massacre.” The American Indian Quarterly 39.4(2015): 364-390.Leavitt,Peter A., et al. “Frozen in Time”: The Impact of Native AmericanMedia Representations on Identity andSelf?Understanding.”Journal of Social Issues 71.
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