CHAPTER 11.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION The human resource is the most important asset of an organization. Thesuccess or failure of an organization is largely dependent on the calibre ofpeople working therein.
Without positive and creative contributions frompeople, organizations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve thegoals or the activities of an organization, they need to recruit and selectpeople with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing sothey have to keep the present as well as future requirements of theorganization in mind. Definition of Recruitment “Recruitment is the process ofsearching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them toapply for the job.”- Edwin B.Flippo Meaning of Recruitment Recruitment can be explained as the process of searching suitablecandidates for the job vacancy from different sources. It is the process that helps in taking decision whether theapplicants are suitable for the fill the vacancy or not. It is clearly in theinterest both the organization as well as applicants.
In human resource management,recruitment is the process of finding and hiring the best and most qualifiedcandidate for a job opening, in a timely and cost effective manner. It is one whole process, with a fulllifecycle, that begins with identification of the needs of the company withrespect to the job, and ends with the introduction of the employee to theorganization. It is a joining process which tries to bring together job seekersand employers. The efficient process of recruitment maybe helpful to describe A) What resources you want?B) What resources are available?C) Where and how they can be found?History of Recruitment Recruitment emerged as a result of World War II. Assoldiers were called to war, gaps were created in the work-place. From here,the employment agencies were born and these agencies began advertising forthose who were not called into military duty to fill the vacancies left behindby those who went to war.
By the 1950’s, people created resumes that depicted their personalprofiles and skills. During the early days, a consultant’s aim was to satisfythe requirements of the candidates but in 1970 there was a shift in focus. As the economy grew, recruiters began to workwith clients as these expanding businesses began to outsource their hiringneeds. However, the recruitment industry had a very different process as moderntechnology and the internet were yet to exist.
The initial main tools ofrecruitment consisted of bulletin boards, which led to paid advertisements inthe newspapers. Recruitment was dependant on word-of-mouth and face-to-faceapplications. As well as storing this information proved to be extremely tiringand difficult, as CVs were kept as mass paper files, making applicationsdifficult to access and sort through. The invention of the computer lightened the load for recruiters with thearrival of Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) and candidate databases which couldstore and search through applications much faster and more efficiently,improving the process for recruiters.
The mid-90’s saw the introduction of theWorld-Wide-Web, which meant recruiters could pull advertising away fromconventional means such as newspapers, and explore a global world of jobadvertising and candidates. This is where the concept of ‘head-hunting’ really took off. Skip aheada few years and social networks made the search for strong skillsets mucheasier, with networks such as LinkedIn dedicating themselves to employers andcandidates. With the rapid growth oftechnology the recruiters can store applicants and quickly dig them up thesecond they see a job opening, making the process faster, more efficient andcost-effective.The future for recruitment isunpredictable. As social networking and internet-based resources expandglobally and quicker than ever, smaller businesses are able to head-hunt forthemselves and cut out the middle man and avoid the costs of an agency.
However, it is the agencies that work to supply only the best candidates toclients. Adhering to the niche sectors and specific requirements associatedwith a particular role. Sources of Recruitment Ø Internal sources – This involves recruiting candidates within anorganization to fill the vacancy. Different methods of internal recruitmentare.ü Internal advertisementü Word of mouthü Promotionsü Retired employeesü Former employees for parttimeØ External sources – This involves recruiting a candidate throughreferences, networks, job portals or by approaching recruitment agencies.Different methods of external recruitment are.ü Job portalsü Recruitment agenciesü Walk inü Campus interviewsü Job ads on newspapers orwebsites.
General process of RecruitmentØ Step 1- Form a selection committeeFirst, you’ll need todecide who will be making the hiring decisions. This group of people will beyour “selection committee”. If you run a small business, your selectioncommittee might only include you. But in most organisations, you’ll have atleast two people on your committee. For larger organisations, consider up tofour. Members of your selection committee should be objective, and shouldrepresent your company’s best interests.
You’ll also have to make sure themembers understand the vacancy you’re trying to fill, and have a goodunderstanding of equal opportunities.Ø Step 2- Write a jobdescriptionYou will attractbetter candidates if you write a good job description. Remember that a good jobdescription should work two ways. It should make great candidates feel goodabout applying for a job with your company, and it should be clear about thekind of person you’re looking for.Ø Step 3- Post job advertisementIf you restrictyourself to posting your brand new job advertisement in just one place, then you’relimiting your reach.
The more places you post your job advertisement, the morechance you have of finding the perfect person. Of course, this can make it hardto track your incoming applications, and it can get a little bit messy. To keepthings in order, try to make sure all applications arrive in one centrallocation.
To maximise your chances of finding the best person for the role,here are a few key places to post your job advertisement:ü Socialmedia.ü Dedicatedjob websiteü Classifiedad boardsü GovernmentJob centreIf possible, aim tocontact all applicants immediately after they apply, to acknowledge theirapplication and to say thanks. You can normally automate this. In yourresponse, you might want to tell them what to expect next – such as when theymight hear from you.
It will increase their confidence in you as an employer.Ø Step 4- Create ashortlist and arrange interviewBy now, you shouldhave plenty of CVs waiting on your desk. Now it’s time for you and yourselection committee to review applications, create a shortlist, and invitecandidates for an interview.
To create your shortlist, you should give eachapplicant a score. This score should be based on how well they meet thecriteria you set out in your job description. Candidates who do not meetcriteria crucial to the role should obviously be removed from the equation. Itis important you do not discriminate during the recruitment process, and thisincludes the shortlisting.Ø Step 5- Conductinginterviews and review scoresYoushould think about the questions you’re going to ask in advance. Last minutescrambling could lead to a poor interview that doesn’t give you the informationyou need, and it could make you look like a bad employer.
The initial interview should lastbetween 30 and 40 minutes. Anything less might feel rushed, while anything moremight be too time consuming – especially if you have a lot of interviews toperform. If you need to go into greater detail with your ideal candidates, thendon’t be afraid of planning two rounds of interviews. You can use the second tointerview the top few people from the first round, and go into greater detailabout the job role and responsibilities.Ø Step 6- Write your preferredjob descriptionOnce you have your final shortlist, you and yourselection committee should compare scores, and decide who best fits the role.
This person will be your “preferred selection” – but be careful not to rejectother candidates too soon, as you may need to go back to them at a later date.It is important to make your preferred selection based on merit – i.e. how goodyou think the person will be at performing the role. It is easy to be biasedtowards a certain candidate, based on things like existing friendships withinnew team, or length of service with the company. Naturally, how well a persongets along with their new team is an important consideration.
But this doesn’tmean you need to put two friends together at the expense of hiring somebody whois not up to the role.Ø Step7- Check referencesYou should check your preferred selection’sreferences and qualifications before you contact them. This could save you fromsome very awkward situations.
For example, imagine offering a person a keyposition… only to find that none of their previous employers feel comfortableproviding a reference. Of course, references don’t necessarily make or break aperson’s abilities. But it still pays to check them out.
If you’re noticing acommon theme from all previous employers – such as refusal to comment onpunctuality – then you might need to prepare yourself for an employee who isperpetually late for work. When calling previous employers to get a reference,you should try not to keep them on the phone for more than five minutes. Ø Step 8- Send aformal job offerYou’re nearly done now. But even though thecandidate has expressed an interest in a role, it doesn’t make it a sealed dealyet.
You still need to send out a formal job offer and await their acceptance.Once your new employee accepts their position; remember to inform unsuccessfulcandidates as a matter of courtesy. It also helps to add them to your talentpool for future.Advantages of recruitmentØ Fresher skill and input- When a company goes with recruitment,there is a quite better possibility of finding and identifying a freshercandidate who is capable of deliveringnew skills and inputs for the betterment of the company.
Therefore,hiring a candidate with recruitment makes things clear and better for thecompany who is in desperate need of fresher skills and inputs for the overallgrowth of the company.Ø Qualified candidates- Nowadays, when a company posts anadvertisement in the social media or newspaper. One common thing they lookfor are well experienced and qualified candidate.
Withrecruitment advertising, the company can find a variety of qualified candidatesfor the post offered. And eventually, this process helps to identify thebest candidates in a lot of skilled candidates.Ø Better competition- If the company needs candidates whocan provide creative ideas for the growth of the company, then the companyneeds to go with recruitment process for the overall development of thecompany. Therefore, once the company understandsthe working nature of an external recruitment then there is a possibility thatthe company might select a candidate with new and better creative ideas.Ø Better growth- By using a recruitment process, thecompany can expect growth not just for the candidate, but actually the companycan expect it for itself also.
When a company selects a candidate with highpotential, then there is a higher possibility of overall growth of the company.The employees within the organization also broaden their capacity and may tryto match with the new talent. Ø Competitive spirit- When employees are recruited throughrecruitment process, there whirls a competitive spirit in the organizationamongst the employees. They present themselves to be competitive with fullenthusiasm to work and match with the new employees. A healthycompetition takes place between the internal and externalemployees and employees become efficient and trained.Ø Being fair- Recruitment process paves way for a fair means ofrecruitment. Since the competition is open and wide, there is more opportunityfor candidates where they can apply for vacant positions in organizations. Therecruitment is done in a fairmanner equally for all candidates where internal politics isavoided.
Ø Ideas from otherindustries- Another smartfactor that can be observed from candidates recruited from recruitment processis that they offer unique and newways which are followed in the competitor or other companies theyworked for. The organization can gain insight into various other aspects ofother industries by means of external recruitment. Disadvantages of recruitment Ø A limited understanding about thecompany- When a candidate is selected from an recruitment process, there is apossibility that the candidate might have less chance ofunderstanding the environment of the company. And this lesser understandingcan make a big difference in the future activities of the company.Ø Higher risk- There is a possibility that thecandidate selected for the post is notworthy of the position offered and he/she can take advantage oftheir position in the company.
This type of risk is very much common in arecruitment process as most of the candidates applied for the job are totalstrangers to the company.Ø Time consuming- The main disadvantages of recruitmentis that it is time consuming asmost of the companies post an advertisement of their company recruitment drive.Then there is a quite possible chance of receiving a higher number applicantfor the post and the recruiter need to be very careful with their decision ofselecting the best candidate for each round of selection process.
Thesedifferent rounds of selection take a bit longer as it involves a number ofprocesses.Ø High cost- As most part of the recruitmentprocess mainly deals with complete new candidates then the company need to comeup with a pay scale for that candidate which should value his/her skill andability. This can turn things a bit costly for the company as they are in need of new ideas andto get such new and creative ideas from the potential candidate.
The companyneeds to provide him/her the best possible deal to refuse. With all theseaspects, the company needs to provide intense training for the candidates.Screening large number of candidates consumes more money.
Ø Invites unsuitable applicants- External advertisingmethods are something that happens in large scale through print media and hencea large number of applicants who are not fit for the job post are drawn in.There are number of unsuitable candidates who line up for low level jobpositions. Definition of Selection “Selection activities follow a standard pattern,beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with finalemployment decision.” –Decenzo andRobbinsMeaningof selection Selectionis a negative process and involves the elimination of candidates who do nothave the required skills and qualifications for the job proposed. It is also aprocess of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hirethose with greater likelihood of success in job. Itis the process of choosing most suitable candidate for the vacant position inthe organization. In other words, selection means weeding out unsuitableapplicants and selecting those individuals with prerequisite qualifications andcapabilities to fill the jobs in the organization. Most often, the selection and recruitment areused interchangeably but however both have different scope.
The former is anegative process that rejects as many unqualified applicants as possible so asto hire the right candidate while the latter is a positive process thatattracts more and more candidates and stimulates them to apply for the jobs. Environmentalfactors affecting selectionØ Legalconsideration- human resourcemanagement is greatly influenced by legislation, executive orders and courtdecisions. Hiring managers must have extensive knowledge of the legal aspectsof selection.Ø Speed of decisionmaking- At times, speed is crucial anda few phone calls and two brief interviews may constitute the entire selectionprocedure. Considering a national search to select a chief executive officermay take months. In bureaucracies, selection process often requires aconsiderable amount of time.Ø Type oforganization- Prospectiveemployees in private sector is screened with regard to how they can helpachieve profit goals.
Government civil service systems typically identifyqualified applicants through competitive examinations. Individuals beingconsidered for positions in non-profit organizations must not only be qualifiedbut also be dedicated to this type of work.Ø Probationaryperiod- Practice may be to check onthe validity of the process. If an individual perform the job during theprobationary period, the other selection tools are not needed.Generalprocess of selectionØ Step 1- Reception:- In order to attract people with talent and skills,a company has to create a good impression from stage 1. Employmentpossibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. If the vacancy is not available,then the applicant must be asked to contact the HR department after a suitableperiod has elapsed.Ø Step 2- Screeninginterview: -It is done to cut the cost by allowing only eligible to gothrough future stages.
The applications are examined by the junior executivesfrom the HR department. It is also called courtesy interview. Ø Step 3- Applicationblank: -It is one of the most common methods to collect information of thecandidates. It is a brief history sheet of the employee’s background. The contentsof application blank are:ü Personal data (address, etc.)ü Physical data (height, weight, etc.)ü Educational dataü Previous employment dataü Data about extracurricular activitiesü Reference (name of two or more people who certifythe suitability of the applicant to the advertised job)Ø Step 4- Selectiontest: – A selection test is used tomeasure the candidate’s behaviour, performance or attitude. It is standardizedto ensure uniform assessment.
The different types of selection test used are;ü Aptitude testü Personality testü Simulation testü Intelligence testü Integrity testØ Step 5- Selectioninterview: – It is an oralexamination of candidates. Its purpose is sharing of information. It is one ofthe most essential steps in the selection process.
The different types ofinterview conducted are:ü Non directive interviewü Depth interviewü Stress interviewü Group interviewü Individual interviewü Panel interviewü Formal interviewü Informal interviewØ Step 6- Medical examination: – Certain jobs require physicalqualities like clear vision, high stamina, clear tone of voice etc. a medicalexamination revels whether the candidates possesses these qualities. Medicalexamination can give the following information:ü Whetherthe applicant is medically fit for the specific job or not.ü Whetherthe applicant suffers from bad health which should be corrected before he canwork satisfactorily.ü Whetherthe applicants physical measurements are in accordance with the jobrequirements or not.Ø Step 7- Reference check: – Candidates should give the names oftwo or three references in their application forms.
Information may becollected from the previous employer or from co-workers. Telephone calls orE-mail is used.Ø Step 8- Hiringdecision: – The concerned linemanager takes this decision.
The decision is taken after soliciting therequired information gathered through different techniques discussed earlier.Ø Step 9- Intimation: – This is final step in the selectionprocess. Intimation should be given to both successful and unsuccessfulcandidates.Difference between recruitment and selectionØ Recruitmentis involved with developing suitable techniques for attracting more and morecandidates.
Whereas, selection is the process of finding out most suitablecandidate for the job in the organization.Ø Thefunction of recruitment precedes the selection process. Whereas the function ofselection is completed by making a job offer to the selected candidates.Ø Recruitmentpolicy specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides rules andregulations for the implementation of the recruitment program.
Whereasselection policy consists of a series of methods or steps by which theevaluation of candidate is done.Ø Recruitmentinvolves to find out the vacancy and to approach the potential candidates toapply for such vacancies. Whereas selection process involves mutual decisionmaking, the organization decides whether or not to make job offer to thecandidate and the candidate decides whether or not to take the job offer.Ø Recruitmentis a linkage activity bringing together those with job and those seeking job.Whereas selection involves comparison of behaviour, attitude and performance oftwo or more persons. 1.2SCOPE OF STUDY The study focuses on the existing recruitment and selection process of “AdAstra Consultants” for its clients.
The entire view of the project is taken byprimary data collection from the current employees of the company. The main aimof “Ad Astra Consultants” is to provide an end to end HR solution across a widespectrum of industry verticals and levels. 1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM It is a difficult task fororganizations to search, recruit, and select talented people in today’s tight labourmarket. As there are fewer qualified talents available, the competition isintensifying. This shortage leads the organizationsto conduct effective recruitment, selection to identify quality talents. Whatis more is that acquiring the right talent is becoming an increasingly complexand challenging activity. Organizations have to put moreefforts other than offering attractive salary to attract qualified talents.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THESTUDYØ To find out how Ad AstraConsultants provide its recruitment service to its clients.Ø Briefly identify how aconsultant unit works for its clients.Ø To analyse whether thecompany meets the clients recruitment or not.Ø To know how the candidateprofile are sourced on behalf of the clients. 1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual applicationin the investigation of matter.
It comprises creative and systematic workundertaken to increase the stock of knowledge of humans, culture and societyand use of this stock knowledge top devise new applications. Research methodology id the process used to collect information and datafor the purpose of making business decisions. The methodology includes researchdesign, data collection methods, sampling methods, survey, analysis andinterpretations. Research design