CHAPTER our industry, especially in manufacturing industry. Looking into

CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER 1.0  Introduction Sorting is commonlyknown as any process of arranging objects systematically, which includessorting by order and sorting by category. Sort by ordering is the process of puttingobject in order according to the criterion, while sort by categorizing isreferred as grouping objects based on their similar properties.      Technological innovation has always beenthe key to growth and prosperity. Indeed, engineering is critical in driving tothis industrial innovation. Engineering disciplines use scientific principlewith project researches to acquire new knowledge as well as innovating thingsto make life easier.

Sorting is one of the important element in our industry, especially inmanufacturing industry. Looking into things that can be observed in our dailylife, coin sorting machine is applied in vending machine.In this chapter, proposed project background, problem statement,objectives, scope and general outline of the project report will be provided. 1.

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1  Project Background  Sorting machine are applied in many differentapplication, but they have common characteristic. They automated tasks that arevery time consuming, or even impossible to do by hand. For instance, sorting apocketful of coins might not be difficult for you, but what if you work in abank and you are required to sort thousands and thousands of coins? Sinceefficiency of a product includes the speed of the production, lowering materialand labor cost, improving quality and decreasing the rejection, thus sortingmachine is viewed as a more economical and practical method of automation.Today, sorting machines are very useful when applied in recyclefacilities.          In this project, a prototype of Arduinobased height sorting machine is designed.

This prototype uses a conveyer beltas it will reduce the effort of materials handling. In this prototype, thematerial handling process and inspection of the object height are taken placesimultaneously.       Arduino is chosen for this project as itis an open source computing platform. It provides easier way with low-cost fornovices and professionals to create devices that is able to interact with theircondition or environment using sensors and actuators. Besides that, thisprototype only performs height sorting, microcontroller such as Arduino is verysuitable in performing this function.

 1.2  Problem Statement Today, ProgrammableLogic Controller (PLC) is consider as a basic component or controller that usedin industry, especially in automation world. However, highly specific skilledsoftware designers are needed in extracting the maximum potentials from thecontrollers, this make PLC system very costly to buy and repair. 1       Since the cost of inspection is anongoing issue in the production companies, thus to reduce the cost, we need toincrease the efficiency of manufacturing process by improving the inspectionprocess. Workers in industry will then spend a lot of time and efforts to inspectand differentiate the height of objects.

2         I been joining a training program whichis Internship for High Impact Talent (I-HIT) organized by Selangor HumanResource Development Center (SHRDC) or can knowns as Talent Corp. PLC basedHeight Sorting Machine is project form my group, at the project presentationone of the panel suggested my group to develop an Arduino based sorting machine.In this situation, we can see that the Arduino is an alternative controller forPLC.          Arduino as a universal open sourceprogrammable controller, the core is built in with general applications, with alittle of external hardware making it able to transfer signals from sensors toactuators, and it became very similar to PLC. Since Arduino is an open sourcesoftware, it means that the cost is lower compared to PLC.

Therefore,development of Arduino based height sorting machine with a conveyer systemwould be much more beneficial to reduce the cost of production. 1.3  Project Objectives Below are projectobjectives that derived from the problem statement of this project paper:1.      To design aprototype of Arduino based height sorting machine. 2.

      To develop a lowcost height sorting machine.3.      To investigate themethod of Arduino based height sorting machine. 1.

4  Project ScopeThe prototype of Arduino based Height Sorting Machinewill be design in appropriate size which is table size. The proposed prototypewill use one unit of Arduino Uno, four infrared sensors, three servo motor anda DIY conveyor belt for object handling/ transportation. The Arduino Uno willbe programed by using Arduino IDE. This prototype will be designed to sortthree different height of object.