Chapter 1THEPROBLEMBackground of the StudyTeaching as a profession has been universally recognized andaccepted as a science and a form ofability art. A greater look at its effect onthe population being taught, points for a greater emphasis on the methodologiesand various ways of imparting knowledge to the young, (Salandanan 2007).Information Technologyas the science of managing andprocessing information using computershas greatly advanced in the last decade in both developed and developingcountries.
Educational Innovationswhichrefers to as the process of makingchanges to something established by introducing something new to educationalprocess has greatly changed the way people learn, communicate and dobusiness. Previous empirical studies world over have highlighted the roles of acomputer as an instructional tool in the classroom, particularly in enrichingthe teaching and learning of Mathematics (Mubichakani, 2012; Wanjala, 2005).However, it is surprising that most schools are yet to integrate its use in theteaching and learning of the subject.Burgos National high school is a public secondary schoollocated at barangay New Poblacion, Burgos, La Union.
It was created with theenactment of Municipal Resolution no. 29 on December1966. Despite of its51years existence, most teachers are still using thetraditional way ofimpartingknowledge to its students. This situation motivated the researcher to develop astudy entitled ” ICT in Mathematicsinstruction among grade 10 learners and junior high school mathematics teachersin the public secondary school ofBurgos, Schools Division of La Union. In relation to the field of study as being emphasize, thisstudy is delimited to the following considerations: The extent of adequacyof ICT instructional materials? Types of ICT use in MathematicsInstruction, Capability of Teachers touse technology in Mathematics Instruction, Constraints encountered by teachersin using technology in mathematics instruction and the possible solutions tosolve or minimize constraints encountered by teachers in using technology inmathematics instruction in the public secondary schools of Burgos District,Division of La Union.Society is in constant change, and the secondary schoolprogram must keep pace. For too many years, the secondary Mathematics programwas static. Our contemporary world demands a kind of mathematical knowledgethat is very different from that require in the past.
ICT capabilityinvolves technical and cognitive proficiency to access, use, develop, createand communicate information appropriately, using ICT tools. Learners demonstrate this capabilitybyapplying technologypurposefully to solve problems, analyses and exchange3information, develop ideas, createmodels and control devices. They are discriminating in their use of informationand ICT tools, and systematic in reviewing and evaluating the contribution thatICT can make to their work as it progresses. ICT capability is much broaderthan acquiring a set of technical competencies in software applications,although clearly these are important. ICT capability involves the appropriateselection, use and evaluation of ICT. In essence, learners need to know whatICT is available, when to use it and why it is appropriate for the task.Knowledge and basic skills compose a large part of learningin mathematics. Technology is ubiquitous.
It affects the lives of the studentsand teachers in dozens of ways every day. As a digital natives, ourstudents needs teachers who are willingto step beyond the way they were taught into a classroom bustling withpossibilities for transmitting, developing, and assessing skills. Studentswants to explore and express their understanding of new content by connectingit to real world tools that they know and love. And be mindful that somedigital natives know everything and more about, getting beyond goggle andassessing the validity and suitability of individual websites.According to Heddens, James W.
( 1988, sixth edition ), the popularity of serious questionsconcerning the teaching of mathematics. Obviously, technology has had a majorimpact outside the classroom. 4However, is the use of technology appropriate inside theclassroom? Preparing learner`s to function successfully in the real world is aprimary goal of mathematics instruction. Since technology is part of the realworld, school system and teachers have an obligation to teach learners` how touse the technology.In thetwentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties includingintegration of information and communication technologies into the teaching andlearning scenario, education curriculum and change in methods in pursuit ofdeveloping learner lifelong learning skills.
Strategy of Implementation ofInformation and Communication Technologies in the Lithuanian Education (2001)emphasizes the main causes that lead to the necessity to utilize ICT ineducation: changes in economy, social and education science areas.The growing placement of microcomputers in classroom issupported by school administrators, teachers and parents. If we makeassumptions that technology is a viable tool of mathematics instruction, whenshould computer be introduce into the instructional program?Salandanan( 2006 ), says that Technology assisted strategiesare aimed at providing valuable skills through instructional devices that canbe viewed and heard, updated information such as recent discoveries andcommunicated are learned through pictures, films, tapes and television.Integration which is an Act ofcombining into an integral whole, for example in this context it is the application of technology into teaching andlearning to assist, enhance and extend student knowledge. Integration of informationtechnologies into the system of education was discussedby a number of authors such as Hargreaves (1994), Lawton (1994), Lai (2001),Ringstaff (1995), Murray and Campbell (2000), Billowes (1999), and others. Itwas emphasized that the change in teaching and learning while integratinginformation and communication technologies is a long process which requires alot of resources and depends on every individual teacher, thus creating anumber of barriers and difficulties.
One of the most important trends in thepresent education system is the change and restructuration in theteaching/learning process integrating technological innovations.The mainrestructuration elementof the change of the teaching practice.Newteaching/learning methods incorporate problem-solving learning, cooperativelearning, orientation to real goals and the change in the teacher roles(Masters, Yelland 2002).Computer software which is the collection of computer programsand related data that provides the instructionstelling what to do. Thehighest barrier to integration of information and communication technologiesinto the teaching/learning process is the change as such. Schools can play avery important role in integrating ICT into the system of education. It isworth mentioning that not only ministries should tale how the process ofintegration should be organized, but alsoschools could give feedback ondifficulties they are facing integrating ICT into curriculum and suggestingwhat could be done differently.
A schoolcan achieve good result by simply providing ample time in the area of ICT bydevoting teacher`s activities outside the class. During these events teachersshould be acquainted with innovations in information and communicationtechnology area, and should be explained in detail how to use these innovationsand integrate them into the process of teaching/learning.ICT advent to theschool conducts the need of reorganization of the teaching and learning andeven of school management and structure it begins process of change. Fullan(1993) asserts that change is a complex phenomenon, whereas the teaching andlearning change is even a more complex and complicated process and presentsseveral principles which, according to him, lead to the successful changeprocess.In these principles Fullan(1999) emphasizes that change is a complicated process, because it is necessaryto change power structures and because a great number of people participate inthis process, including teachers, principals, school managers, learners andtheir families.Changecannot be required from the people who lead school or from the government;however, support of the latter is particularly important Fullan (1999) alsonotices that during the change the problems arise and conflicts emerge and thatit is necessary to learn from them, not to look at them as a negativephenomenon. Change requires cooperation, however, this cooperation has to allowfor and foster the difference in opinions and approaches.
According to him, thewhole process of change has to be flexible and its efficiency depends on the planof change, if it is designed and how specific it is. Thereare, certainly, a number of barriers, including teacher development and changeprocess, to successful integration of technologies into the teaching/learningprocess. Until these barriers exist, the learners will not be able to take fulladvantage of the opportunities provided by information and communicationtechnologies.Therefore,continued development, training, and mentorship are essential for an effectiveteacher’s development program.ConceptualFramework of the Study Theterm ICT as utilized to education, are those technologies include computers,the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio andtelevision), and telephony that canfacilitate not only delivery of instruction, but also learning processesitself. (Gulbahar 2007) stress that ICTrequires up-to-date hardware and software.
Using up-to-date hardware andsoftware resources is a key feature in the diffusion of technology but a rareexperience in educational institutions. High-speed internet connection isanother prerequisite for integrating ICT into the teaching-learning situation.But unfortunately internet access is very poor. The use of ICT in the mathematics classroom haslong been a topic for consideration by mathematics educators. Various form ofICT toolsuse in mathematics include: portables, graphic calculators andcomputerized graphing, specialized software, programmable toys or floor robots,spreadsheets and databases. Studies have shown that a range of portable devicesexists which allow pupils to collect data, and manipulate it using spreadsheetsand databases for work in numeracy. Some portable equipment also enables thestudy of math to move out of the classroom and to incorporate fieldworkinvestigations (Moseley and Higgins 1999).Many researchers havepointed out that a school’s ICT vision is essential to effective ICTintegration (Anderson & Dexter, 2000).
Bennett (1996, p. 60) stressed theimportance of a “well-defined mission that describes technology’s place ineducation”. In line with this idea, Ertmer (1999) wrote, “A vision gives us aplace to start, a goal to reach for, as well as a compass along the way” (p.
54). Also, Means and Olson (1997) recommend that teachers and schools mustdevelop a vision before they make substantial investments in hardware andsoftware. In other words, users of technology must have a fundamental belief inthe value of innovation or the innovation is doomed to failure. Teachers musthave opportunities to study, discern, redirect, and confer their practice.
The rapid evolution ofinformation and communication technology (ICT) and Innovations of new values though solutions that meet new requirementsand inarticulate needs is changing the face of education and making informationuniversal. Understanding the upshot of the ICT in the education system, theDepartment of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Department of Education providedmost of the schools with computer units and peripherals. Some of the teachersin these schools have undergone ICT trainings.
ICT has become an imperativetool in enhancing the learners`learning aptitude for them to connect amid thecontent of the teacher tips and technology applications which encourage them togo intoand expand their creativity with the use of technology. It should alsoexpand into the knowledge of the community, for their deeper understanding,engagement and involvement in realizing the importance of technology.ICT which refers to a range oftechnological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, todisseminate, to store and manageinformation.
Technologies do not refer to only the computers, but also broadly toInternet, broadcasting technologies (such as radio and television), telephones(including mobile phones), CDs and DVDs.However, this new technologycould not take the place of the educators in the classroom. It is not asolution for all educational problems either (Wang & Woo, 2007). ICT iscertainly an effective tool that permits us to link various learningcommunities together in new and different ways (Tailor, 2000).
It provides greatpossibilities for effective communication betweenteachers and students in varying and innovative ways.Teacher which referredtoas person who instills knowledge, attitudes and skills have been found to be major forward planner ofthe use of new technologies in instructional settings. The teachers’ beliefsabout teaching and learning with ICT are central to integration.Mwelese andWanjala (2014) indicate that to be successful in computer use and integration,the role of the student, and their role as teachers in enhancing themselvestowards Technology based instructions for more efficient, effective and evocative mathematics instruction.
Thus, the successful use of ICT into classroomlargely depends on teachers’ attitudes and belief concerning the whole process.Indeed, it has been conjure up that thought towards computers affect teachers’use of computers in the classroom and the likelihood of them benefiting from training(Kluever, et al, 1994). This study wants to find out on the adequacy of ICT instructional Material, the capability ofteachers in using ICT, constraints in the use of ICT in teaching – learningprocesses and provide suggested solutions on the constraints encountered in theuse of ICT in mathematics instruction at the same time it enhance researchers to employs an adeptfusion or hybrid technologies anchored on an artistic and systematic creationof activities intended to bring the 21st century learners to anoteworthy and unforgettable learning experiences.
TheDepEdhigher ups formulated policies and programs,initiated projects for them to realized the importance of technology in theeducational world .This has also been done in Indonesia, Malaysia, Uzbekistanand Vietnam. In Asia and the pacific, including emergingcountries, teachers inprimary, secondary and tertiary levels are being trained in the use of ICT ineducation with varying degree of scope. Most of the training programs carrygeneral objectives aimed at developing awareness, knowledge and skills ineither the use of computers in teaching and learning (IPS, 2003 17Figure 1Paradigmof the Study ( Input ) ( Process ) ( Output ) .
ICT instructional materials and capability of teachers to use technology in grade 10 mathematics instruction . Constraints encountered by teachers using ICT in grade 10 mathematics instruction . Descriptive Survey . Participant Observation .Questionnaire . Statistical treatment and analysis of data .
Effective grade 10 mathematics instruction using adequate ICT tools and materials by well trained teachers . Design strategic plan in solving constraints in the use of ICT in mathematics instruction 18Statement of the ProblemTheresearcher aim to develop ICT inMathematics Instructions among grade 10Learners in the public secondary schools of Burgos, SchoolsDivision of La Unionthat will identify, determine, suggest and develop particular technologies tofit the needs and desire of people moving around the educational world. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. Whatis the extent of adequacy of ICTinstructional materials? 2. Whatis the level of capability of teachers to use technology in mathematicsinstructions?3. Whatis the degree of seriousness of constraints encountered by teachers in the useof technology in mathematics instructions?4.
Whatis the degree of effectiveness of solutions to solve or minimizethe constraints encountered by teachers in theuse of technology in mathematics instructions?Null Hypotheses The nullhypotheses of this research were the following:1. Thereis no significant difference between the perception on the adequacy of ICT instructional materials.2. Thereis no significant difference between the perception on the capability of teachers to use technology inmathematics instructions.193.
Thereis no significant difference between perceptionon the constraints encounteredby teachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.4. Thereis no significant difference between perception on the effectiveness of solutions to solve orminimizethe constraints encountered byteachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.