CHAPTER in traffic accidents worldwide. Traffic accident related deaths

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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     Transport
plays an important role in the economic development of any region. Economic
growth that result in higher incomes and a rising living standards are expected
to create greater demands for travel for both work and non-work/leisure
purposes. This in turn can create congestion and reliability problems on
transport network, increasing cost on business and damaging quality of life. As
road transport provides door to door connection and flexible movement of goods
and passengers, its patronage by people are on the rise day by day. The quality
of life now greatly depends on the quality of roads.

    Road accidents are one of the major causes
of death, injury and disability in all over the world both in developed and
developing countries. With a broad estimate, in every one minute, two people
are killed and 95 people are severely injured or permanently disabled in
traffic accidents worldwide. Traffic accident related deaths and injuries
result in not only substantial economic losses but also serious physical and
mental sufferings. Developing countries are much more affected from traffic
than developed countries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO)
statistics, 75 percent of deaths resulted from traffic accidents occurring in
developing countries, although they won 32 percent of motor vehicles in the
world.

ROAD
TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

          A road traffic accident (RTA) is any injury
due to crashes originating from, terminating with or involving a vehicle
partially or fully on a public road. It is projected that road traffic injuries
will move up to the third position by the year 2020 among leading causes of the
global disease burden.  They are considerable economic losses to victims,
their families, and to countries as a whole.

 The Global status report on road safety 2013
indicates that worldwide the total number of road traffic deaths remain
unacceptably high at 1.24 million per year. Road traffic injuries are the
leading cause of death among young people, aged 15–29 years. Children,
pedestrians, cyclists and older people are among the most vulnerable of road
users constituting half of those dying on the world’s roads. Majority of the
world’s fatalities on the roads occur in low-income and middle-income
countries, even though these countries have approximately half of the world’s
vehicles.

India is no exception
and data showed that more than 1.3lakh people died on Indian roads, giving
India the dubious honor of topping the global list of fatalities from road
crashes. Rapid urbanization, motorization, lack of appropriate road
engineering, poor awareness levels, nonexistent injury prevention programmed,
and poor enforcement of traffic laws has exacerbated the situation.

India has the highest
road traffic accident rate worldwide with over 140,000 deaths annually, beating
even China. Every hour, nearly 14 lives are lost due to road accidents in
India. More than 40% of the deaths are caused by trucks and two-wheelers. Most
accidents occur in the afternoons and during peak hours (especially in the
evening) considered an ‘unsafe’ or dangerous time to be on the road. In 67% of
these accidents there is head injury. Most people do not wear seat belts or those
on two wheelers do not wear  helmets –
though it is compulsory in many states of the country. Our traffic conditions
are chaotic, the rules are broken all the time and we have no traffic sense.
All this reflects in the number of fatal accidents that occur in India. Road
traffic accidents have come down in most western countries due to strict
adherence to traffic rules and stringent penalties. Low and middle income
countries face the brunt of 90% of fatal road accidents, according to the WHO
mortality statistics. Poor road planning and inadequate protection to
pedestrians and cyclists cause road mishaps, besides human error. The
statistics reveal that

The number of total
accidents reported in 2010 was 499,628. After a moderate increase of 0.35%
during 2009, the number of accidents reported during 2010 showed a growth of
2.72% as compared with accidents reported in the year 2009. More than 1.2
million people are killed in Road Accidents worldwide, every year.

The number of persons killed, increased by 7%
during 2010 in comparison to 4.8% during 2009.

The number of persons injured which had recorded
a decline of 1.5% during 2009, increased by 2.3% during 2010.

The total number of
road accidents, injuries and deaths increased at CAGR of 2.5%,

3 to 4 % of Gross
National Product is lost in Road Accidents.

One child is killed in
Road Accidents, every three minutes in the World.

Total worldwide death
toll of Tsunami of 2004 was about 230,000.

But the annual
worldwide death toll of Road Accidents is 1,200,000!!! i.e., more than five
times the Tsunami toll.

The Asia-Pacific region, which accounts for
about 16 percent of the motor vehicles worldwide, is the site of 44 percent of
all traffic deaths. China, with 71,495 deaths, and India, with 59,927 deaths,
had the most traffic fatalities in the world in 1995. The rate of deaths to
crashes is 2,000 for every 10,000 in Vietnam. In developing countries, the
costs of motor vehicle accidents represent three to five percent of the GDP.
The estimated yearly cost of motor vehicle accidents in developing countries
exceeds US$ 100 billion.

Accidents are quite common on Indian Roads.
According to figures by the Road Safety Cell of the Union Ministry of Road
Transport and Highways, there were 3.9lakh accidents in 2000; 78,911 were
killed and 399265 injured. Moreover, with the rapid urbanization, India has seen
un-precedent growth of motor vehicles. Currently, motor vehicle accidents rank
ninth in order of disease burden and are projected to be ranked third in the
year 2020. Worldwide, the number of people killed in road traffic crashes each
year is estimated at almost 1.2 million, while the number injured could be as
high as 50 million. In India, over 80,000 persons die in the traffic crashes
annually, over 1.2 million are injured seriously and about 3,00,000 disabled
permanently.

Unlike advanced countries which have a set-up,
where data is available easily, in India, we just compile statistics but have
no data. India has, over the years, emerged as the world’s road deaths capital
with fatalities skyrocketing by 40 percent in five years. There should be an improvement
in signs and lane markings, and surveillance cameras should be installed,
besides controlling speed.

The United Nations has rightly proclaimed
2011-20 as the decade of action on road safety and have called upon all member
countries to prepare a decadal action plan for implementation in their
respective countries, so that the present rising trend of road accidents
stabilizers and is reversed by the year 2020.

According to a report
prepared by the Transport Research Wing (TRW), the total number of road
accidents has increased marginally from 4.86 lakh in 2013 to 4.89 lakh in 2014.
The number of fatalities has also gone up by about 1.5%. Thirteen states –
Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,
Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana –
account for about 83.2% of the deaths.

While Tamil Nadu
accounts for the maximum number of road crash injuries among all the states,
Delhi had road accidents with 1,671 deaths and Chennai registering the second
highest number at 1,118. Last year, 318 people died in 475 crashes in Ludhiana
while 106 such cases claimed 63 lives in Dhanbad. The holy city of Amritsar
registered 94 fatalities in 165 crashes.

 

CAUSES
OF ROAD ACCIDENTS

1.    
Distracted driving
Distracted driving becomes a larger threat every year and has been the leading
cause of car accidents for the past decades. Please pay attention to the road
while you are driving. That means no calls, no texting, no eating, no reading, no grooming or application of makeup, and
talking while behind the wheel.

2.    
 Drunk Driving 
Drunk driving is one of the most dangerous causes of accidents in the U.S. and
is the most deadly. If you have had anything to drink, take a taxi or give your
keys to a sober friend. It is not worth the risk.

3.    
Speeding
Although it can be tempting to push the speed limit when you are running
late, speeding is the second most common cause of accidents, so you should resist the urge and stay within
the legal limits.

4.    
Reckless
Driving
Changing lanes too quickly, speeding well over the limit, and acting aggressive
on the roads can lead to horrible accidents. It is important to take your time
and remain calm while driving to avoid needless accidents caused by simple
carelessness.

5.    
 Night Driving
Lack of visibility makes hazards more difficult to see at night. Make sure that
you are extra alert on the road at night, and use your full lights when on an
abandoned road without streetlights.

6.    
 Design Defects
Sometimes accidents are
caused by flaws in the car itself. While you cannot always avoid this, make
sure to take note of any recalls in the news and take your car in for regular
maintenance.

7.       Drugs: 
While alcohol is the culprit we usually associate with DUIs,
drugs, including marijuana, prescription pills and other illegal drugs also
cause terrible accidents. Never drive if you are under the influence of any
drug, prescribed or not.

8.   
Weather Conditions

Inclement weather is another factor causing traffic accidents.
Heavy rain, snowstorms or hail can decrease the visibility of drivers and cause
them to misjudge the distance of other vehicles surrounding them. Driving
through thick fog too fast may not allow drivers enough time to stop when
approaching another vehicle. Road conditions as a result of the weather can
cause roads to become slick and slippery, such as after ice storms and heavy
rains, which may cause vehicles to slide and make it difficult to come to a
complete stop.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

Most of
the fatal accidents occur due to over speeding. It is a natural psyche of
humans to excel. If given a chance man is sure to achieve infinity in speed.
But when we are sharing the road with other users we will always remain behind
some or other vehicle. Increase in speed multiplies the risk of accident and
severity of injury during accident. Faster vehicles are more prone to accident
than the slower one and the severity of accident will also be more in case of
faster the severity of accident will also be more in case of faster vehicles.
Higher the speed, greater the risk. At high speed the vehicle needs greater
distance to stop i.e. braking distance. A slower vehicle comes to halt
immediately while faster one takes long way to stop and also skids a long
distance due to law of notion. A vehicle moving on high speed will have greater
impact during the crash and hence will cause more injuries. The ability to
judge the forthcoming events also gets reduced while driving at faster speed
which causes error in judgment and finally a crash.

 

Consumption
of alcohol to celebrate any occasion is common. But when mixed with driving it
turns celebration into a misfortune. Alcohol reduces concentration. It
decreases reaction time of a human body. Limbs take more to react to the
instructions of brain. It hampers vision due to dizziness.

 

Alcohol
dampens fear and incite humans to take risks. All these factors while driving
cause accidents and many a times it proves fatal. For every increase of 0.05
blood alcohol concentration, the risk of accident doubles. Apart from alcohol
many drugs, medicines also affect the skills and concentration necessary for
driving. First of all, we recommend not to consume alcohol. But if you feel
your merrymaking is not complete without booze, do not drive under the influence
of alcohol. Ask a teetotaler friend to drop you home.

 

Since the beginning of
this year, over 200 Ghanaians have lost their lives through fatal motor
accidents. The latest one was recorded on the Accra-Winneba road last Monday,
where 11 people perished after the vehicle they were travelling in ran into a
stationery truck.Most of these fatal accidents have been attributed to over
speeding and wrong over taking by the drivers. As a result of these reckless
behaviour by drivers on our roads, some residents living along towns and
villages on the major high ways have taken the law into their own hands to
check some of these irritant drivers. For example, people living along
Juapong-Ho highway have dug trenches on the road to check the excessive over
speeding by cars and vehicles.

 Though the root cause of these accidents has
not been identified, it also appears like nothing is being done by the
government, civil society groups and concerned agencies to check this alarming
trend. Drivers continue to speed and make wrong over taking on our highways
without any hindrance. Sometimes, passengers who dare challenge these erring
drivers become victims of their own colleague passengers on board the vehicle,

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2

 

LITERATURE SURVEY

 

1)Pai, S. (2016). A Literature
Study On Road Accidents Statistics And Reasoning. IJITR, 4(6)

 

This
paper analyses traffic safety situation in India and identifies the areas in
which the total harm caused by crashes can be substantially and readily
reduced. This focuses on two aspects road accident statistics and reasons for
road accidents.

 

The first
part of the report provides a comprehensive analysis of the current statistics
of road accidents happening in India. It is pointed out in analysis that
fatality rate have increased during the past few years. These statistics
indicate that number of fatalities in India is not likely to start to decline
for many years to come unless new policies are implemented. Second part of the
paper gives a brief insight on the various reasons for road accidents in India.
From the reasons, we can make out, both the Govt. and motorist are equal
shareholders.

 

Road
accidents are an outcome of the interplay of various factors, some of which are
the length of road network, vehicle population, human population and
adherence/enforcement of road safety regulations etc. Road accident causes
injuries, fatalities, disabilities and hospitalization with severe socio
economic costs across the country. Consequently, road safety has become an
issue of concern both

at
national and international level. The United Nations has rightly proclaimed
2011-20 as the Decade of Action on Road Safety. India is also signatory to
Brasilia Declaration and is committed to reduce the number of road accidents
and fatalities by 50 per cent by 2020.

 

 

 

2)Robert,
K. (2009, September).Traffic surveillance: A robust framework for multi-vehicle
detection, classification and tracking. In Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance, 2009.
AVSS’09. Sixth IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

 

 

This paper presents an effective traffic
surveillance system for detecting and tracking moving vehicles in nighttime
traffic scenes. The proposed method identifies vehicles by detecting and
locating vehicle headlights and taillights using image segmentation and pattern
analysis techniques. First, a fast bright-object segmentation process based on
automatic multilevel histogram thresholding is applied to effectively extract
bright objects of interest. This automatic multilevel thresholding approach
provides a robust and adaptable detection system that operates well under
various nighttime illumination conditions.

 

 The extracted bright objects are then
processed by a spatial clustering and tracking procedure that locates and
analyzes the spatial and temporal features of vehicle light patterns, and identifies
and classifies moving cars and motorbikes in traffic scenes. The proposed
real-time vision system has also been implemented and evaluated on a TI DM642
DSP-based embedded platform. The system is set up on elevated platforms to
perform traffic surveillance on real highways and urban roads. Experimental
results demonstrate that the proposed traffic surveillance approach is feasible
and effective for vehicle detection and identification in various nighttime
environments.

 

 

 

3)Cui, Y., & Ge,
S. S. (2003). Autonomous vehicle positioning with GPS in urban canyon environments. IEEE
transactions on robotics and automation, 19(1), 15-25.

 

The
Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in land vehicle navigation
applications. However, the positioning systems based on GPS alone face great
problems in the so-called urban canyon environments, where the GPS signals are
often blocked by high-rise buildings and there are not enough available
satellite signals to estimate the positioning information of a fix.

 

To solve
the problem, a constrained method is presented by approximately modeling the
path of the vehicle in the urban canyon environments as pieces of lines. By
adding this constraint, the minimum number of available satellites reduces to
two, which is satisfied in many urban canyon environments. Then, different
approaches using the constrained method are systematically developed. In
addition, a state-augmentation method is proposed to simultaneously estimate
the positions of the GPS receiver and the parameters of the line. Furthermore,
the interacting multiple model method is used to determine the correct path
which the vehicle follows after passing an intersection of roads. Simulation
results show that this approach can solve the urban canyon problems
successfully.