Chapter and Aisha Karim: “At its first eruption, violence

Chapter 1                           


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Everything in the world is
maintained by a balancing factor known as nature. Nature provides different
qualities and potentials along with their appearance to every object. Every
balancing factor is adding to the support the object gives to its counterpart.

Considering this notion we classify men and women as each other’s supportive
counterparts. A major threat to this supportive society of men and women is
what we generally consider as gender discrimination. Gender discrimination
takes its roots from a very common notion prevailing over the society i.e. men
are stronger than women whilst women are weak both physically and emotionally.

But on the other side of the picture females have been victimising male by
violence and discrimination. This seems very strange that generally the women
is considered as the victim of discrimination but the deeper we look into the
situation, the more we get closer to the reality that women are not that
innocent as they pretend to be, they have been discriminating the men also
committing violence against them.


Social setup, culture,
religion, geographical conditions, economic setup, moral standards and literacy
are the major determinants of gender discrimination in any society. To
determine what actually is meant by gender discrimination, we analyse all of
the above mentioned characteristics either it be individual or collective
analysis. Violence is the main generated element of discrimination.


is a general term to describe those actions that cause or intend to cause
injury to people, animals, or non-living objects. The term is mostly used in a
broader sense; and we can identify it in individuals, and the masses at various
levels ranging from a micro to macro level. It exists in many forms, and at
multiple levels, including emotional, economical, physical, verbal, sexual, or
psychological forms. Whether carried out by individuals, groups, or
institutions the violent behaviour is governed by various psychological and
social factors. It threatens the body in numerous and complex ways.





According to Bruce B Lawrence and Aisha Karim:


“At its first eruption,
violence is always experienced as unique. If given time and reception, however,
it becomes routine, part of the air, and one learns how to breathe it without
being asphyxiated”1.


One no
longer seeks to eliminate it, or even to understand it. Episodes of violence
may flicker up in different places, but each is contained in it local context,
where it risks becoming normal.

is broadly divided in two components;


Micro Level :

starting from smallest level including,

Personal Violence (acts of
aggression performed by individuals like: actions directed towards intimate
objects, animals or by oneself. This includes domestic and gender violence.).

Interpersonal Violence (is used
in self-defence: shootings, physical abuse).

Collective Violence (forms
include Wars, terrorism, and other violent political conflicts. Genocide,
repression and other abuses of human rights).

Institutional Violence (which
serves institutional objectives, like: concentration camps or murders committed
by totalitarian governments; it can be part of a socially accepted economic
system or religious organization’s goals).


Macro Level:

creates advances in military and media technology globally and is transmitted
across the entire planet through nuclear weapons, and advanced warfare.


to WHO’s Report Violence is:

intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against
oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results
in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm,
or deprivation”2.                                                                     

The epidemiological
data on violence are derived from three primary sources:

Hospital, emergency medical service, and
medical examiners’ records.

Police reports and arrest records (and other
agency records, such as child protective services for reports of child abuse).

Self-report surveys
and interviews. In addition, specialized studies that address the particular
dynamics and contexts of violence have proven to be important to the
understanding and prevention of violence.   


Islamic views
relating to violence start when the conflict began between the Prophet Adam’s
sons Habil & Qabil:

“Recount to them in all the
truth the story of Adam’s sons how they each made an offering, and how the
offering of the one was accepted while that of the other was not he said:”I will
surely kill you.”The other said:”ALLAH accepts (offerings) only from the
righteous. If you stretch your hand to kill me, I shall not lift mine to slay
you; for I fear ALLAH, the lord of creation. I would rather you should add your
sin against me to your other sins and thus incur the punishment of hell. Such
is the reward of the wicked.3”


Violence against men can be categorised under
gender based violenc

1 Bruce B.

Lawrence, Aisha Karim (2007). On
violence. USA: Duke University Press. p5.

2  (Basic concepts of psychiatric-mental health
nursing By Louise Rebraca Shives)

3 Quran:Surah Maida:
Ayat 27-29