Cancer being a catastrophe of the frame ofhigher multicellular organisms consequential from the deviant growth of thecells attains modifications in the statement of copious amendments, promptingdysregulation of the conventional cell programming concerned with the celldivision and cell separation. This upshot in an unevenness of cell replicationand cell passing that promotes the development of a tumor cell population. Thequalities that portray a lopsided growth of a malignant tumor are thecompetence to strike locally, to sweep to neighboring lymph nodes, and tometastasize far off organs in the body. Clinically, growth seems, by allaccounts, to be an extensive assortment of diseases with various phenotypicattributes.
As a cancerous growth ensues, genetic drift in the cell populationforms cell heterogeneity in such physiognomies as cell antigenicity, invasiveness,metastatic potential, rate of cell proliferation, differentiation state, andresponse to chemotherapeutic agents. At the molecular level, all cancers haveplentiful things in mutual, which implies that the ultimate biochemical lesionssteering to malignant transformation and progression can be fabricated by acommon but not analogous pattern of alterations of gene readout. In general,malignant cancers cause noteworthy morbidity and will be lethal to the host ifnot treated. Omissions to them give the marks to be concealed, laidback cancersthat may remain clinically undetectable (or in situ), permits the host to havea standard life expectancy. There are over 100 diverse categories ofcancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected,and these include breast cancer, cervical cancer, skin cancer, leukemia, lungcancer, prostate cancer, and so on. Chronic degenerative diseasessuch as cancer have touched epidemic proportions and are being regarded as aserious health condition and therefore, the treatments of these diseases are ofclinical importance (WHO, 2005).
In consequence, the medicinal plants play apivotal role and are considered as the basis for health preservation and careworldwide. There havebeen researches done on the anti-cancerous properties of plants and recognizedfor centuries. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has screened approximately35,000 plant species for conceivable anticancer activities. Among them, about3,000 plant species have established reproducible anticancer activity. Manystudies have focused on the anticarcinogenic properties of plants such as Abrus precatorius , Albizzia lebbeck Alstonia scholaries Anacardium occidentale hepatoma, Asparagus racemosa , Boswellia serrata , Erthyrina suberosa , Euphorbia hirta , Gynandropis pentaphylla , Nigella sativa , Peaderia foetida , Picrorrhiza kurroa , Withania somnifera, Annona muricata toname a few. Annona muricata is a species of the Annonaceae family that has been widely studied inthe last decades due to its therapeutic potential. The medicinal uses of theAnnonaceae family were reported long time ago (Billo´n, 1869), and since then,this species has attracted the attention due to its bioactivity as well astoxicity.
1. Annona muricata: Descriptionand ethnomedicinal uses:Annona muricata, commonly called Soursop or Graviola, isa tropical plant species renowned for its edible fruit which has selectedrestorative benefits, yet in addition particular toxicological impacts. This plantis a species of the genus Annona, of theAnnonaceae family, order Magnoliales and Division Magnoliophyta. The genus Annona comprises over 70 species amongwhich A. muricata is the most extensively grown.
TheSoursop tree grows up to 5– 10 m tall and 15– 83 cm in breadth with lowbranches. It has a tendency to blossom and fruit a large segment of the year,however there are more characterized seasons relying upon the altitude. It isscattered in the tropical areas. Theflowers of the plant are showy and are yellow-green colored.
The fruithere is an ovoid berry, dull green in shading. Each fruit may comprise 55–170black seeds when fresh and they transform to light brown when dry. The flesh iswhite and creamy with distinctive aroma and flavor.