Biology 1000 – Assignment 11. What type of molecules are soluble in water? What types of molecules are not? Why are some molecules water soluble while other are not?a. The type of molecules that are soluble in water are polar molecules. Specifically speaking, there are six important chemical groups. The first five of the six are called functional groups.
They change a molecules function by participating in chemical reactions. These groups are polar, which makes the compounds containing them hydrophilic. For example, sugar. This means that the compounds are attracted to water. The types of molecules that are not soluble in water is the sixth group which is the methyl group, it is non-polar. For example, lipids (fats) are hydrophobic, they are a group of molecules that stick together because they do not mix with water.
Another example stated in the textbook was the oil in a bottle of salad dressing. Hydrophobic means “afraid of water”. The reason some molecules are water soluble while others are not is because the structure of a molecule determines the solubility of it. Some are capable of forming hydrogen bonds and others are not able to.2. What makes up a carbonyl functional group? What type of molecules contain carbonyl groups?a. A carbonyl function group is a carbon atom that is joined by a double bond to an oxygen atom. What makes up a carbonyl functional group, is the carbon skeleton and the specific location of the carbonyl group, which is situated at the end of the carbon skeleton.
Sugar contains a carbonyl group.3. Explain between the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane.a. Endoplasmic reticulum if one of the biggest mass-producing sites in a cell. There is both smooth endoplasmic reticulum and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum of many cells, functions in a variety of important processes.
Ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum produce proteins that many types of cells release. When a molecule is ready to be released from the endoplasmic reticulum, it is placed in a “transport vehicle” that to goes to different parts of a cell. Such as towards the Golgi apparatus, where the processing continues.
After the completion, the Golgi apparatus now sends the proteins with the help of the transport vehicles towards the plasma membrane where the proteins are eventually released.4. Identify two organelles that are not part of the endomembrane system and list their function in the cell.a. Both Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are not part of the endomembrane system.
Both of the organelles do not come from the endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts both have two membranes each. The function of a mitochondria is to use O2 and release CO2 in transforming chemical energy into food.
This process is called Cellular Respiration. Chloroplasts function is the site of photosynthesis. It has a sac called thylakoids and this sac stores solar energy.5. What are two main stages of photosynthesis? Which consumes carbon dioxide? Which produces oxygen?a. The two main stages of photosynthesis are Light reactions and Calvin cycles. The Calvin cycle consumes CO2 and Light reactions produces O2.
6. What is chemiosmosis and where does it occur? (Provide 2 examples)a. In Chemiosmosis, the energy is used to make ATP. Two examples of where Chemiosmosis occurs is in Cellular respiration and in light reactions of photosynthesis.7.
In the following reaction, indicate which molecule is being reduced and which is being oxidized and explain why?Glucose + O2 —> CO2 + H20a. The glucose molecule is oxidized because that is was produced the energy in cellular respiration. In this reaction, oxygen is reduced and it gives hydrogen an electron in order to produce water (H2O).8. What functional group can you get after the oxidation of a hydroxyl group?a. The functional group you can get after the oxidation of hydroxyl group would be carboxyl group.
9. Outline the reactions of photosynthesis indicating the reactants of each, the products of each, and where each occurs.a.
Light Reactionsi. Reactants for light reactions are water and lightii. Products for light reactions are ATP, NADPH, and O2iii. Location for light reactions is in the thylakoids membraneb.
Calvin Cyclesi. Reactants for the calvin cycles are CO2, ATP, NADPHii. Product for calvin cycles is glucoseiii. Location for calvin cycles is in the Stroma