Biodynamic from conventional and organic agriculture?. 4 2.1…….. The

Biodynamic Wine  submitted at theIMC Fachhochschule Krems(University of Applied Sciences)   Bachelor programme International Wine BusinessBy Vanja Miladic & Chantal Krämers Supervisor: Eva, Schwarz, Dr. MPH Submitted on: 19.

12.2017ForewordThis paperaims to describe biodynamic wines, as well as the viticultural difference toconventional agriculture. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the consumerbehaviour and the influence of biodynamic winegrowing. Anothervery important aspect to look at, regarding biodynamic wines, is the biodynamicagricultural influence on world wine markets.Last thepaper will concentrate on describing changing or different aroma attributeswhile abstaining from chemicals. The researchquestion is: Is biodynamic pseudoscience? Table ofContentsForeword.

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ITableof Contents. II 1…

….

. Introduction. 32.

….

How does biodynamicviticulture differ from conventional and organic agriculture?. 42.1….

…. The differencebetween organic, biodynamic and conventional winemaking.

63…….

. In what range doesconsumer behaviour influence biodynamic winegrowing?. 74….

…. How does biodynamicagriculture influence world wine markets?. 85…

….. Conclusion. 96..

…..

. List of References. 10 1            IntroductionBiodynamicviticulture is a modern form of an altered philosophy/worldview which impactson the practice of agriculture in various ways. It has its roots in the 1920’swhen Rudolph Steiner (in 1924)1 ,an Austrian Philosopher-Scientist considered the farm in its entirely as aliving system and is the oldest anti-chemical agriculture movement that isknown.

Nowadays there are 616 wineries worldwide producing biodynamic wines onabout 8200 ha. 2This paper will discuss the influence of consumer behaviour on biodynamicwinegrowing and the impact it has on economy. “Unique to theBiodynamic method of farming is a management approach that understands avineyard as a self-contained individuality.  It is managed as a livingorganism that has a scope that encompasses far beyond the details that occurwithin the fence lines of the operation.  Such a production method yieldsgrapes that are very true to the living earth, the light, the warmth and thedistinct archetypal rhythms that permeate and form the fruit of thevineyard.  The goal of the Demeter Wine making Standard is to allow forwines that can bring this authenticity through the wine.         “32            Howdoes biodynamic viticulture differ from conventional and organic agriculture? Talkingabout biodynamic viticulture the renouncement in usage of chemicals ischaracteristic and differs this method to conventional and organic agriculture.

In use of this special way of agriculture everything in universe is interconnectedand gives resonance including celestial bodies like the moon, planets andstars. With this holistic view vintners practice the balancing of resonancebetween vine, man, earth and stars. A question to ask is: What makes winebiodynamic? This specialapproach to biodynamics already occurs in the vineyards before the actualwinemaking starts. While various tasks like planting, pruning and harvestingare regulated by a special biodynamic calendar: days are divided into fourcategories. The four categories are:”1.

      Fruit Days: Best days forharvesting grapes2.     Root Days: Ideal days forpruning3.     Flower Days: Leave the vineyardalone on these days4.     Leaf Days: Ideal days forwatering plant.”4Besides this special calendar there are nochemicals additions like commercial yeast allowed. Everything that is going tobe added needs to be naturally. For this reason, vintners produce specialcompost and preparations with natural ingredients only to bolster thevineyards.

Rudolph Steiner proposes his “preparations” in lectures four andfive: various small constructions to be added to the field or compost atvarious times of the year, such as the burial of a cow’s horn filled with   manure (now called Preparation 500), burialof yarrow flowers in a stag’s bladder (Preparation 502), chamomile in a cow’sintestine (Preparation 503), oak bark in the skull of a domestic animal (Preparation505), or dandelions in a “bovine mesentery” (Preparation 506). 5Furthermore, the usage of a series of somespecial preparations enhances the life of the soil which is not simply thesubstrate where the vines grow in, but an organism in its own right. For this reason, the preparations need to be appliedin keeping with the rhythms of the nature. Moreover, disease is named to be asymptom of a deeper malaise within the organism. To cure the disease theproblem in the system needs to be corrected and it will right itself. Goingfurther there is also a difference in composting, where compost preparationsget stuffed into cow horn and buried in the soil. Afterwards the cow horns get dug up and reused.Animal horns are a symbol of abundance since the early Greeks.

The dung shouldbe from a lactating cow which will bring in the calcium processes to thepreparation. The cow should be fed with good quality fodder two days beforefilling the horns to ensure the dung is of good quality. 6 2.1           Thedifference between organic, biodynamic and conventional winemaking   Organic Biodynamic Conventional Ø  no synthetic pesticides or fertilizers Ø  no sulphites added Ø  sustainable methods such as natural compost Ø  No synthetic pesticides or fertilizers Ø  No sulphites added Ø  No synthetic additives allowed in winemaking process Ø  Highest form of sustainable wine-grape agriculture Ø  Uses pesticides and herbicides Ø  May include sulphites up to 330ppm Ø  May include chemicals used to assist fermentation Ø  Sustainability may or may not be important for the winemaker  Figure 1: Differencebetween organic, biodynamic and conventional winegrowing  7 ,8,9  3            Inwhat range does consumer behaviour influence biodynamic winegrowing? In timeswhere people get more sensitive according to what they eat and drink, bio-productsand vegan/vegetarian lifestyle become more and more attractive. Around 375million people10worldwide are living vegan and it’s increasing steadily. Not only those whorenounce animal products are having a closer look on what is inside their wine.

They don’t longer want animalistic additives such as Albumen (egg white),Gelatin or Isinglas (dried swim bladders of fish). 11There’sa visual trend back to eco-friendly agriculture and that’s because people are consideredbeing more conscious nowadays. We live in an age of science and technology andthe processes of biodynamic viticulture have a medieval feel – more likealchemy than rocket science. 12And theresults are qualitative, which is inconvenient in a quantitative age.

Nevertheless, biodynamic wines are being given excellent scores by testers allover the world as some recognize it as a way to preserve terroir.13What itseems to come down to is that winegrowers willing to accurately grow grapes in order to the lunar calendar, tend to be alsodetail-oriented in other aspects of wine production, resulting in finely, ifbizarrely, crafted wines.14In any case, biodynamic wine has received premium prices in many wine shopsacross the globe. Winemakers around the world are adopting this approach due tothe boom in people wanting to know exactly what they are consuming and where itcomes from. 15 4            Howdoes biodynamic agriculture influence world wine markets? The popularityof biodynamic winegrowing is increasing steadily. As single winegrowers adoptedit, and found that it worked, then they shared their knowledge with other winemakerswho took an interest in this new way of growing.

Either way, biodynamics seemsto be growing as a movement, driven largely by the enthusiasm of bothindividual growers and to the same amount by consultants. 16 The figure belowrepresents the increase in popularity of biodynamic wines worldwide.        Figure 2: Worldwide trend of Demeter-certified farms (number of farms)  175            Conclusion In order tothe fact that people are getting more sensible according to what they eat anddrink, there is a remarkable trend to organic and biodynamic wines nowadays,which will steadily increase and grow. Essentially, biodynamics is a holisticview of agriculture.

But it still is an open question how exactly biodynamicshas its effects, and in addition it is therefore still not clear which elementsof its theory need to be adopted by winegrowers in order for them to accrue itsbenefit. So will biodynamics continue to increase in popularity? To end up thisdiscussion we’ll let Michel Chapoutier, the largest biodynamic winegrower inFrance by some distance, have the final word: “The great cycles that all men of the land must respectare those of our celestial environment: those of the moon, of the sun, ofslumber and of awaking. The vine is sensitive to these cosmic rhythms that weendeavor to respect. We endeavor to respect this in our daily work, from thedormant period to harvest. “18  6            Listof figuresFigure 1: Difference between organic, biodynamic andconventional winegrowing   ,, 6Figure 2: Worldwidetrend of Demeter-certified farms (number of farms) 8  7             List of References Alliance, O.

V. (2013). Organic Vineyard Alliance.

Retrieved from http://organicvineyardalliance.com/organic-wine-definitions-behind-the-label/ Castellini, A., Mauracher , C.

, & Troiano, S. (2016). An overview of the biodynamic wine sector.

International Journal of Wine Research , 1-11. Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., L. (2004). The Myth of Biodynmaic Agriculture.

Washington State University: Puyallup Research and Extension Center. Chapoutier, M. (1990). terlato-mchapoutier. Retrieved from https://terlato-mchapoutier.

com/biodynamie/ demeter. (2014). Demeter.

Retrieved from https://demeter.de/verbraucher/aktuell/weltweit-616-weing%C3%BCter-zertifiziert Demeter Standards, U. (2014). Freywine. Retrieved from “Unique to the Biodynamic method of farming is a management approach that understands a vineyard as a self-contained individuality.

It is managed as a living organism that has a scope that encompasses far beyond the details that occur within the fence li Figus, C. (2014). 375 million vegetarians worldwide. All the reasons for a green lifestyle . Larson, H. (2014).

Winefolly. Retrieved from http://winefolly.com/review/biodynamic-wine-guide/ Morganstern, A. (2008). Terroir And Biodynamics In The Cellar. Nuria, S. (2016).

What is the difference between organic, biodynamic and natural wines? Sawe, B. (2017). Countries With The Highest Rates Of Vegetarianism. Upscape. (2017).

UPSCAPE. Retrieved from http://upscapetravel.com/blog/green-guide-wine/ Waldin, M. (2013). Monty Waldin’s Best Biodynamic Wines. Floris Book.

wineorks. (2013). wineoark.

com. Retrieved from http://www.wineanorak.com/biodynamic8.

htm    1 (Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., 2004, p. 1)2 (demeter, 2014)3 (Demeter Standards, 2014)4 (Larson, 2014, p. 1)5 (Waldin, 2013, p.

53)6 (BDAI Secretariat, 2014)7 (Alliance, 2013)8 (Nuria, 2016)9 (Upscape, 2017)10 (Figus, 2014)11 (winefolly, 2012)12 (Karlsson & Karlsson, 2004, p. 76)13 (Morganstern, 2008)14 (Kiger, 2013, p. 134)15 (Sawe, 2017)16 (wineorks, 2013)17 (Castellini, Mauracher , & Troiano, 2016, p. 5)18 (Chapoutier, 2017)Biodynamic Wine  submitted at theIMC Fachhochschule Krems(University of Applied Sciences)   Bachelor programme International Wine BusinessBy Vanja Miladic & Chantal Krämers Supervisor: Eva, Schwarz, Dr. MPH Submitted on: 19.12.2017ForewordThis paperaims to describe biodynamic wines, as well as the viticultural difference toconventional agriculture. Furthermore, this paper illustrates the consumerbehaviour and the influence of biodynamic winegrowing.

Anothervery important aspect to look at, regarding biodynamic wines, is the biodynamicagricultural influence on world wine markets.Last thepaper will concentrate on describing changing or different aroma attributeswhile abstaining from chemicals. The researchquestion is: Is biodynamic pseudoscience? Table ofContentsForeword. ITableof Contents. II 1.

……

. Introduction. 32.

……. How does biodynamicviticulture differ from conventional and organic agriculture?.

42.1…….

. The differencebetween organic, biodynamic and conventional winemaking. 63.

….

… In what range doesconsumer behaviour influence biodynamic winegrowing?. 74….

…. How does biodynamicagriculture influence world wine markets?. 85…

…..

Conclusion. 96…..

List of References. 10 1            IntroductionBiodynamicviticulture is a modern form of an altered philosophy/worldview which impactson the practice of agriculture in various ways. It has its roots in the 1920’swhen Rudolph Steiner (in 1924)1 ,an Austrian Philosopher-Scientist considered the farm in its entirely as aliving system and is the oldest anti-chemical agriculture movement that isknown. Nowadays there are 616 wineries worldwide producing biodynamic wines onabout 8200 ha. 2This paper will discuss the influence of consumer behaviour on biodynamicwinegrowing and the impact it has on economy. “Unique to theBiodynamic method of farming is a management approach that understands avineyard as a self-contained individuality.  It is managed as a livingorganism that has a scope that encompasses far beyond the details that occurwithin the fence lines of the operation.

  Such a production method yieldsgrapes that are very true to the living earth, the light, the warmth and thedistinct archetypal rhythms that permeate and form the fruit of thevineyard.  The goal of the Demeter Wine making Standard is to allow forwines that can bring this authenticity through the wine.         “32            Howdoes biodynamic viticulture differ from conventional and organic agriculture? Talkingabout biodynamic viticulture the renouncement in usage of chemicals ischaracteristic and differs this method to conventional and organic agriculture.In use of this special way of agriculture everything in universe is interconnectedand gives resonance including celestial bodies like the moon, planets andstars. With this holistic view vintners practice the balancing of resonancebetween vine, man, earth and stars.

A question to ask is: What makes winebiodynamic? This specialapproach to biodynamics already occurs in the vineyards before the actualwinemaking starts. While various tasks like planting, pruning and harvestingare regulated by a special biodynamic calendar: days are divided into fourcategories. The four categories are:”1.

      Fruit Days: Best days forharvesting grapes2.     Root Days: Ideal days forpruning3.     Flower Days: Leave the vineyardalone on these days4.     Leaf Days: Ideal days forwatering plant.”4Besides this special calendar there are nochemicals additions like commercial yeast allowed. Everything that is going tobe added needs to be naturally.

For this reason, vintners produce specialcompost and preparations with natural ingredients only to bolster thevineyards. Rudolph Steiner proposes his “preparations” in lectures four andfive: various small constructions to be added to the field or compost atvarious times of the year, such as the burial of a cow’s horn filled with   manure (now called Preparation 500), burialof yarrow flowers in a stag’s bladder (Preparation 502), chamomile in a cow’sintestine (Preparation 503), oak bark in the skull of a domestic animal (Preparation505), or dandelions in a “bovine mesentery” (Preparation 506). 5Furthermore, the usage of a series of somespecial preparations enhances the life of the soil which is not simply thesubstrate where the vines grow in, but an organism in its own right. For this reason, the preparations need to be appliedin keeping with the rhythms of the nature.

Moreover, disease is named to be asymptom of a deeper malaise within the organism. To cure the disease theproblem in the system needs to be corrected and it will right itself. Goingfurther there is also a difference in composting, where compost preparationsget stuffed into cow horn and buried in the soil. Afterwards the cow horns get dug up and reused.Animal horns are a symbol of abundance since the early Greeks. The dung shouldbe from a lactating cow which will bring in the calcium processes to thepreparation. The cow should be fed with good quality fodder two days beforefilling the horns to ensure the dung is of good quality.

6 2.1           Thedifference between organic, biodynamic and conventional winemaking   Organic Biodynamic Conventional Ø  no synthetic pesticides or fertilizers Ø  no sulphites added Ø  sustainable methods such as natural compost Ø  No synthetic pesticides or fertilizers Ø  No sulphites added Ø  No synthetic additives allowed in winemaking process Ø  Highest form of sustainable wine-grape agriculture Ø  Uses pesticides and herbicides Ø  May include sulphites up to 330ppm Ø  May include chemicals used to assist fermentation Ø  Sustainability may or may not be important for the winemaker  Figure 1: Differencebetween organic, biodynamic and conventional winegrowing  7 ,8,9  3            Inwhat range does consumer behaviour influence biodynamic winegrowing? In timeswhere people get more sensitive according to what they eat and drink, bio-productsand vegan/vegetarian lifestyle become more and more attractive. Around 375million people10worldwide are living vegan and it’s increasing steadily. Not only those whorenounce animal products are having a closer look on what is inside their wine.They don’t longer want animalistic additives such as Albumen (egg white),Gelatin or Isinglas (dried swim bladders of fish). 11There’sa visual trend back to eco-friendly agriculture and that’s because people are consideredbeing more conscious nowadays.

We live in an age of science and technology andthe processes of biodynamic viticulture have a medieval feel – more likealchemy than rocket science. 12And theresults are qualitative, which is inconvenient in a quantitative age.Nevertheless, biodynamic wines are being given excellent scores by testers allover the world as some recognize it as a way to preserve terroir.

13What itseems to come down to is that winegrowers willing to accurately grow grapes in order to the lunar calendar, tend to be alsodetail-oriented in other aspects of wine production, resulting in finely, ifbizarrely, crafted wines.14In any case, biodynamic wine has received premium prices in many wine shopsacross the globe. Winemakers around the world are adopting this approach due tothe boom in people wanting to know exactly what they are consuming and where itcomes from. 15 4            Howdoes biodynamic agriculture influence world wine markets? The popularityof biodynamic winegrowing is increasing steadily. As single winegrowers adoptedit, and found that it worked, then they shared their knowledge with other winemakerswho took an interest in this new way of growing. Either way, biodynamics seemsto be growing as a movement, driven largely by the enthusiasm of bothindividual growers and to the same amount by consultants. 16 The figure belowrepresents the increase in popularity of biodynamic wines worldwide.        Figure 2: Worldwide trend of Demeter-certified farms (number of farms)  175            Conclusion In order tothe fact that people are getting more sensible according to what they eat anddrink, there is a remarkable trend to organic and biodynamic wines nowadays,which will steadily increase and grow.

Essentially, biodynamics is a holisticview of agriculture. But it still is an open question how exactly biodynamicshas its effects, and in addition it is therefore still not clear which elementsof its theory need to be adopted by winegrowers in order for them to accrue itsbenefit. So will biodynamics continue to increase in popularity? To end up thisdiscussion we’ll let Michel Chapoutier, the largest biodynamic winegrower inFrance by some distance, have the final word: “The great cycles that all men of the land must respectare those of our celestial environment: those of the moon, of the sun, ofslumber and of awaking. The vine is sensitive to these cosmic rhythms that weendeavor to respect. We endeavor to respect this in our daily work, from thedormant period to harvest. “18  6            Listof figuresFigure 1: Difference between organic, biodynamic andconventional winegrowing   ,, 6Figure 2: Worldwidetrend of Demeter-certified farms (number of farms) 8  7             List of References Alliance, O. V. (2013).

Organic Vineyard Alliance. Retrieved from http://organicvineyardalliance.com/organic-wine-definitions-behind-the-label/ Castellini, A., Mauracher , C., & Troiano, S. (2016). An overview of the biodynamic wine sector.

International Journal of Wine Research , 1-11. Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., L. (2004). The Myth of Biodynmaic Agriculture. Washington State University: Puyallup Research and Extension Center.

Chapoutier, M. (1990). terlato-mchapoutier. Retrieved from https://terlato-mchapoutier.com/biodynamie/ demeter. (2014). Demeter.

Retrieved from https://demeter.de/verbraucher/aktuell/weltweit-616-weing%C3%BCter-zertifiziert Demeter Standards, U. (2014). Freywine. Retrieved from “Unique to the Biodynamic method of farming is a management approach that understands a vineyard as a self-contained individuality.

It is managed as a living organism that has a scope that encompasses far beyond the details that occur within the fence li Figus, C. (2014). 375 million vegetarians worldwide. All the reasons for a green lifestyle . Larson, H. (2014). Winefolly.

Retrieved from http://winefolly.com/review/biodynamic-wine-guide/ Morganstern, A. (2008). Terroir And Biodynamics In The Cellar.

Nuria, S. (2016). What is the difference between organic, biodynamic and natural wines? Sawe, B.

(2017). Countries With The Highest Rates Of Vegetarianism. Upscape. (2017). UPSCAPE. Retrieved from http://upscapetravel.

com/blog/green-guide-wine/ Waldin, M. (2013). Monty Waldin’s Best Biodynamic Wines. Floris Book. wineorks. (2013). wineoark.

com. Retrieved from http://www.wineanorak.com/biodynamic8.htm    1 (Chalker-Scott, Ph.D., 2004, p. 1)2 (demeter, 2014)3 (Demeter Standards, 2014)4 (Larson, 2014, p.

1)5 (Waldin, 2013, p. 53)6 (BDAI Secretariat, 2014)7 (Alliance, 2013)8 (Nuria, 2016)9 (Upscape, 2017)10 (Figus, 2014)11 (winefolly, 2012)12 (Karlsson & Karlsson, 2004, p. 76)13 (Morganstern, 2008)14 (Kiger, 2013, p.

134)15 (Sawe, 2017)16 (wineorks, 2013)17 (Castellini, Mauracher , & Troiano, 2016, p. 5)18 (Chapoutier, 2017)