Based onJ.K. Lakshmipat (2012)trees provide the primary raw material for the paper. Wood is madefrom is cellulose in the form of fiber.
Cellulosefiber can found in many vegetable tissues, that can be freely be extracted bymechanical or chemical means. These sources are so much numerous in plantspecies from which it can be derived, and the number of species gives fiberwhich could be used for paper runs into thousands. Thetrees are cut down and the trunk is put into a chipping machine where it is cutinto very small pieces. Then the wood chips that contain cellulose are boiledin water to form a thick wood pulp Chemicals. Fresh river water is used in paper makingprocess. The pulp is washed, refined, cleaned andsometimes bleached, then turned to slush in the beater.
Color dyes, coatingsand other additives are mixed in, and the pulp slush is pumped onto a movingwire screen. As the pulp goes down the screen, water is drained away andrecycled. The resulting crude paper sheet, or web, is compress between largerollers to remove most of the remaining water and ensure smoothness and uniformthickness. The pulp is spilled overa fine mesh and the water escapes leaving the cellulose fiber behind. Thefinished paper is wound into large rolls, which can be 30 feet wide and weighclose to 25 tons. A slitter cuts the paper into smaller, and the paper is readyfor use. That will form papers.
V. Ryan (2004)Based on TimesOp-Ed (2013) the average consumer uses 500 bags a year, about 80 percentplastic and 20 percent paper. Plastic bags cost retailers like grocery stores 2cents to 5 cents each, and paper ones cost 5 cents to 23 cents.
In studythat conducted by, Edelman Berland they found out that gaugeconsumer perceptions of different types of bags, to specify how often reusablebags are used to, and to try and established the future that plastic andpaper bags will continue to play in checkout lines. The respondent that wassurveyed composed of consumers who have either received or purchased reusablenon-woven polypropylene (NWPP) bags—roughly 28 percent of a nationwide sample.J. Eick (2014)KathrynSukalich (2016) stated that in 2011,over 66.8 percent of paper consumed in the United States was recycled. Each ton of papersthat recycled saves more than 3.
3 cubic yards of landfill space, and if theymeasure through weight, more paper is recovered for recycling than plastic,aluminum and glass combined. Paper is a material that used to recycling, since 87 percent in society have access to curbside ordrop-off recycling for paper. So basically after the consumer used papers theywill collecting it and recycled again.This paper analyze the life cycle of papers because paperbags is made of paper that usually usedas shopping bags, packaging, and big sacks. II. Life Cycle Analysis of Plastic Bag Plasticbags are made from a ubiquitous polymer substance polyethylene. This kind ofsubstance begins as ethylene, and it is commonly extracted from natural gases, andthen treated to become the polymer, that forming long chains of carbon andhydrogen atoms.
These chains will be depending on what type of polyethylene isbeing used, but they all help create various types of plastic bags. T. Lacoma (2017). A Polythene is produced from crude oiland natural gas, two non-renewable resources is found underground, through aprocess known as the tubular film process. Basically there are many typesof polyethylene in creating plastic bags the HDPE, PETE, LDPE, LLDPE, PVC, PP,and PS.
The HDPE stands for high density polyethylene, it is the most and commontype of polyethylene used to create shopping bags. Polyethylene Terephthalate(PET or PETE) is tough, clear and has good gas and moisture barrier compositionsthat making it ideal for carbonated beverage applications and other food Tupperwareor containers. The LDPE is made from low density, branching chains ofpolymer materials.
This chain makes a very light, almost film likeplastic that is used to make the tear-away bags dry cleaners that are used for wrappingcleaned clothes. The LLDPE is connected to linear low density polyethylene; theseplastics do not branch, but also didn’t have the same strength as HDPEversions. It means that the shopping bags created from LLDPE plasticsneed to be thicker and heavier weight that traditional grocery bags. PVCis known as Polyvinyl Chloride which is excellent transparency, chemicalresistance, long term stability, good weather ability and stable electricalproperties. The flexible vinyl is used in wire and cable sheathing, insulation,film and sheet, flexible floor coverings, and others. The Polypropylene (PP)has excellent chemical resistance and it is commonly used in packaging.Polypropylene is found in everything that are flexible and rigid packaging tofibers for fabrics and carpets and consumer products. Then Polystyrene (PS) isa versatile plastic that can be rigid.
The general purpose of polystyrene isclear, hard and brittle. Its clarity allows it to be usedwhen transparency is important, as in medical and food packaging, and incertain electronic uses. According to Rutan PolyIndustries, INC. (2014) to create plastic bags the process is similar to theprocess for creating a book.
There are two steps to make plastic bags theprocess known as “extrusion” first step in making a plastic bag. An extruder isused to heat the polyethylene plastic to a temperature of up to 500 degrees Fthat can melt the pellets, and then the molten plastic flowinto machine and a die that determines the thickness that the bag will produce.Afterwards, the plastic film is pushed into a bubble by the outsideair and through a cooling process. Then the film will cut into the appropriatesize and then placed onto a spindle.
On the second step, once the plastic bagis placed onto the spindle, it will go into conversion department. This groupof people will unwraps the film roll and cuts it with a heated knife that alsoseals each of the sides of the bags together and conversion also adds somecharacters on it. Lastly handles are cut out using a heat process, and logos,designs and text is added to the bag. Onplastic bags the chemicals is in use are the commonly extracted from naturalgases and oil crude that involves the types of polyethylene.Basedon Plastic Industry over 150,000 plastic bags capable on two pallets. The samenumber of paper bags would fill a 40ft truck.
Plastic is also very strong.Supermarket bags can hold at least 22lb of shopping. Some hold twice that.Every year, each person consume 216 plastics and an estimated of 500 billion arebeing used around the globe each year. It is commonly use for shopping andbeing thrown for an average of 20 minutes. Daily Mail Reporter (2008) indicatedthat the five trillion carrier bags produced each year start life as crude oil.
Demand is so high that 0.2% of the world’s oil is used to make them – about 60million barrels.D. Consumer Use E.
Post-Consumer Use Basedon the assessment over 86,000–117,000 tons 18kg per person of post-consumerplastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. In majority, 84% ofthe waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. In year 2016, almost 40% of thepost-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. Becauselaunching new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumerplastic packaging. Hence , 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plasticpackaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSWrecycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. H.Dahlbo, et al. (2017) III.
ConclusionAsyou can see from the information above, creating plastic bags is a fairlysimple and easy process that industry can do quickly and without a lot oftrouble. A lot of bags can be produced in only a few minute, and since theprocess is so easy, the cost of the plastic bags keeps down to an affordableprice. Plastic bags are very easy to be made and they have so many differentpurposes that make them handy in our everyday lives. Thenas you can see paper bags came from trees, a lot of trees in loggingindustries. The trees are found, marked and felled in a process that all toooften involves clear-cutting,resulting in huge destruction and long-term ecological damage.
Needs a megamachinery that requires fossils to operate. Then in the process of makingpapers it needs a lot of materials to create a product. But in terms of rawmaterial, paper bags are much better to use since it is renewable, recyclableand biodegradable unlike plastic bags, scientist estimate it takes 400 to 1,000years to vanish.IV. References J.K. Lakshmipat (2012) Pulp Production http://www.
jkpaper.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=55&Itemid=56 V. Ryan (2004) How Paper and Cardare Manufactured http://www.
technologystudent.com/despro2/crdpap1.htmTimes Op-Ed (2013) Plastic andpaper bags hide costs as well as groceries. Retrieved from http://www.nj.com/south-jersey-voices/index.
ssf/2013/07/opinion_plastic_and_paper_bags.htmlJ. Eick (2014) ConsumerBehavior and Retail Bag Usage https://www.alec.
org/article/consumer-behavior-retail-bag-usage/Kathryn, Sukalich (2016) EverythingYou Need to Know About Paper Recycling https://earth911.com/business- policy/ business/paper-recycling-details-basics/Lacoma, Tyler (2017) Materials Usedfor Making Plastic Bags http://sciencing.com/materials-used-making-plastic-bags-5267902.htmlRutan Poly (2014) How are PlasticBags Made? http://rutanpoly.com/plastic-bags-made/H.
Dahlbo, et al. (2017) Recyclingpotential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/S0956053X17307791Daily Mail Reporter (2008) The lifecycle of a plastic bag. Retrieved from http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/bills/article-1620912/The-life-cycle-of-a-plastic-bag.html