backgroundsthat explain or inform interactions within an organisation Motivation is the desire in order to achievesomething such as a goal, if you have high motivation this means that you willput more effort in and work harder in order to try and achieve this goal.In this essay, I will be taking about the differentmotivation theories and how it affects various backgrounds of people. Therefore,for each point I will state it will vary between these different subgroups inwhich I will explain so. This will include satisfaction theories whichHertzberg covers in his two-factor theory of motivators and hygiene factors.
How a satisfied worker is more likely to work harder and reduce absenteeism.Incentive theories how an individual will try to obtain rewards by increasingtheir efforts which McGregor talks about two types of individuals being Theoryx and y. Intrinsic theory, how a person will work best in a job and able to geton with it. In which I will cover Maslow hierarchy of needs, what it takes toreach each level.
Research is shown that employers look for employeesthat require less aid of direction in order to get tasks done and not as muchmonitoring yet will still get the job done in a time efficient and professionalmatter. They seek for employees that are self-motivated and take pride in doingtheir own work therefore don’t need extra incentives in order to help pushthis. Therefore, they seek for international workers who tend to work for moneyrather than workers in home land whom may not as the foreign workers tend tonot be as picky due to not being well off. This can include workers from Asiawhich can be seen as a cheap alternative. As it will be less of a hassle forthem to hire people that are already self-motivated as they already understandthe responsibility and the importance of the tasks and will do it without anydistractions.
However, employers can help with employees getting self-motivatedby creating a pleasant work environment this can be achieved by beingsupportive, giving them aid when need to be as well as allowing themopportunities in order to grow within in the organisation. For an employeeworking in a supportive work environment will help them feel more comfortableworking in the organisation and increase self-esteem. As well as working in ateam will create new challenges in order to get involved in having to useinitiative and good communication skills to get better sense ofaccomplishment. (The Balance, 2017) Satisfactiontheories:TwoFactor Theory-Frederick HerzbergSatisfactiontheory is the idea that if a worker is satisfied they will work harder in orderfor the task to get done. They will tend to stay in the same organisationtherefore reduce labour turnover for the company meaning that there is lesstime and money having to spend in order for new recruitment of staff andtraining. The theory covers that by paying attention to conditions of work environmentin which the employee works in will reduce absenteeism, meaning that tasks willget done and will not be short staffed for that particular period. However,this will not affect the individual productivity of the employee. One of thetheorist who looks into satisfaction is Fredrick Herzberg with his two-factortheory.
This theory looks at motivators which are things that bring about jobsatisfaction. Also, hygiene factors which prevent dissatisfaction in the workplace but cannot bring satisfaction. This is the belief that the factors thatare motivating are not the same as the factors that demotivate individuals atwork.
The motivator factors referred by Herzberg are believed to lead tosatisfaction and positive attitudes in the workplace. The motivator factorsare: interesting work, challenging work, opportunities for achievement,recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, personal growth. Thesecan help achieve self-actualisation and help satisfy individual needs. Themotivator factors can help lead to higher productivity within the workplace andmore satisfaction. Example of these are challenging work, achievement of work,opportunity in order to grow and develop in the organisation and increased jobresponsibility.
If this is the casethere will be higher motivation and less dissatisfaction when absent. “Hygiene factors act in a manneranalogous to the principles of medical hygiene. Hygiene operates to removehealth hazards from the environment of man.
It is not curative, it is rather apreventive” (Wren, D.A., 1979).
The hygiene factors are supervision, companypolicies, salary, working conditions and job security. When these are absent jobdissatisfaction sets in. It follows a model, if employee satisfaction isincreased it increases motivation, if motivation is increased it increasesemployee performance. However how motivation factors translate across differentcultures can vary. This can differ around different cultural backgrounds, forexample employees from western society recognition of work such as employee ofmonth will set well and help with motivation.
But employees from other ethnicbackground such as Asia where people want to be recognised as a team effort canfell that being singled out can see to be embarrassing therefore affect thedynamic of the teamwork. (Limited,2017) IncentiveTheoriesDouglas McGregor – Theory X and YIncentive theory is the idea that theindividual will increase their efforts to get a reward for example money. Also,that managers guide employees in order to achieve future rewards. DouglasMcGregor believes that there are two fundamental approaches to people. Which iseither theory x or y and your outlook will influence the way you attempt tomotivate your employees. Theory x workers are described that they have to bemonitored/supervised otherwise the quality of work will fall. There onlymotivator is money in order to work, they wish to remain faceless and unknownto management.
Therefore, have little ambition with in their status and thebusiness. The consequences of managing a worker who is theory x is that theyhave to supervise them in order to maintain the quality, this could have majorimpacts on job design and control. They may have to design the task to be brokendown into simplest units therefore make it clear for the worker. It strains thesenior management as they have high level of dependence on decision making. Managersalso believe that the employees are lazy and will avoid work when they can.
However,different types of people can react differently to a theory x management asthey might find it comfortable, also people from different ethnic backgroundmay feel as if they are getting discriminated against. Also, staff withdifferent upbringing may not be comfortable with aggressive approach and foldunder the pressure. Some employees may appreciate them being direct with themhowever others may feel that the directness is losing face. (How do employee motivations differ in variouscultures? | Monster.
co.uk, 2017) Whereas, theory y workers were characterisedby McGregor workers cannot be motivated by just money itself, they seek morethan financial satisfaction from their jobs for example willing to train andcontribute in order to improve their chances of promotion. Therefore, the theoryy workers tend to be given more responsibilities and wider range of tasks. Asthey are more efficient when they are left on their own. Managers believe thatthe workers enjoy their work and able to make their own plans in order toachieve them whether it is long term or short.
This theory may suit people fromall backgrounds due to being able to work with another in a calm environmenttherefore able to integrate and communicate with another by helping out,increasing productivity and satisfaction.Intrinsic Theories – Maslow Hierarchy of needs Maslow’s theory is an individualisticapproach to motivating employees. Hebelieved that people a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards. Thisfive stage model is divided into basic needs such as physiological, safety,love and esteem and growth needs (self-actualisation) (McLeod, S. A.
2014). Physiological is the basic level in which wewill work for food/drink to sustain life. After this is achieved you then moveup a level for the need of security. In order for management to be able toensure that physiological needs are met is by ensuring that their staff takebreaks, holidays and time for employees in order to rest.
As well as makingsure salary is enough to be able to pay for basic necessities which includeclothes, food, drink, clothing, rent, heat). For religious purposes such asChristians taking time off for Christmas whereas Muslims will not want thistime off but Eid instead. It can differentiate for gender, if a woman ispregnant they will get time off for maternity leave. Safety needs are to makesure that we are protected in case any harm may come its way. This can includesuch as medical insurance, job security, financial reserves and living in asafe area. This can be ensured by making sure that workspace maintains healthand safety procedures therefore the work environment is safe.
Provide lockersfor individuals to keep their personal items safe, also protective clothing andworking tools/equipment to ensure safe working practices. It is important foran employee to have job security especially if they have to support theirfamilies and this job is the main source of income in order to provide forthem. This means that they will be heavily relying that this will be the caseand that they know that their job role is secure. Social needs are the need toreceive and give love/appreciation. We want to have a social life in which wewant to share our emotions. Management will help with this in the workplace byencouraging individuals to work groups in order to get tasks done this willallow the employees work together on a regular basis. As well as having teamproduction meeting where individuals can have input into things and make contribution.
However, this can differ from religious purposes as some Muslims may not wantto work with a gender that is from a opposite gender in some cases as they maynot be comfortable; other individuals will prefer this. Therefore, it differswith different types of people in the working environment in which themanagement have to adjust to. Esteem is reached when an individual is enjoyingpersonal status/achievement. Esteem allows them to be their selves and expresstheir personality. This is done by management by giving out individual bonuses,the flexibility to personalise their own work space. Employees can use this asan opportunity to show their different culture if they are from differentethnic backgrounds, which can help them feel comfortable in the environment asthey don’t have to act a certain way, therefore increasing motivation due toachieving esteem. Finally, self-actualisation the need to be the best we canpossibly be, by using all gifts and talents we have. We are satisfied with ourposition and being true to ourselves.
Management tips is to recognising goodwork so that the individual think that their doing a good job and bring aboutmorale. I believe that this is the case for all employees, they wish to reachself-actualisation (Burns,2017) In conclusion, different people fromvariousdisciplinary backgrounds take these factors in account but react differently inorder to get motivated. This can be due to their different beliefs upbringingsand views on different matters, therefore will react differently to differentmethods and thoughts. It is up to the management to be able to adjust in orderto help motivate and get the best out of their employees in order to keep themhappy and increase productivity. It is important for this to be achieved as itwill reflect the company’s image and will bring about people wanting to workfor them as well as attracting more shareholders (people willing to invest intothe company).