Authentication and all the requisite rights accorded. A computer

Authentication

Authentication is ensuring that every
user attempting to log in to any database has permission guaranteed and all the
requisite rights accorded. A computer authenticates a password that corresponds
to a username whereas a phone performs the latter by requesting for a PIN
number (Elmasri and Navathe, 2015). In the database concept, authentication adopts
a different dimension as it applies to different levels. Authentication on a
database also allows a setup change to allow external methods or operating
systems for user authentication. For example, in the creation of an SQL Server,
the user defines the type of authentication as either database authentication
or mixed mode authentication.

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Database Authorization

Authorization is the process through
which a server determines if a user is permitted to access or use a file. The
security concept involves the server authenticating the client trying to access
the file. Authorization consists of different types of authentication in cases
where passwords may be used or not. Most web pages on the internet do not
require passwords, which implies they require neither authorization nor
authentication

Database Encryption

Encryption is the process of
transforming data to unreadable form so that no one can access it without a
decryption key. The process uses both Socket Layer (SSL) and Secure Shell (SSH)
protocols. SSL drives the ‘https://’ in Amazon and E-Bay (Jueneman et al.,
2015). Ideally, SSL data is encrypted between a web server and a client before its
transfer between the two whereas SSH data engrosses both the server and the
client during communication (Jueneman et al., 2015). Sensitive information,
like credit card numbers, home addresses, and security numbers, sent over the
internet face fewer risks of interception.

Database Change Tracking

Change tracking as a database
security concept enables applications to access changes on user tables together
with information about the changes. According to Oluwatimi and Bertino (2016), the
integration of change tracking into an SQL server is no longer required. The
latter, however, is an essential block for applications with no answer to end-to-end
replications when a custom solution is needed; this challenge is common during
synchronization and data replication. An example is a scenario that requires different
SQL server databases in synchronizing data.