AuthenticationAuthentication is ensuring that everyuser attempting to log in to any database has permission guaranteed and all therequisite rights accorded. A computer authenticates a password that correspondsto a username whereas a phone performs the latter by requesting for a PINnumber (Elmasri and Navathe, 2015). In the database concept, authentication adoptsa different dimension as it applies to different levels. Authentication on adatabase also allows a setup change to allow external methods or operatingsystems for user authentication. For example, in the creation of an SQL Server,the user defines the type of authentication as either database authenticationor mixed mode authentication.Database AuthorizationAuthorization is the process throughwhich a server determines if a user is permitted to access or use a file. Thesecurity concept involves the server authenticating the client trying to accessthe file.
Authorization consists of different types of authentication in caseswhere passwords may be used or not. Most web pages on the internet do notrequire passwords, which implies they require neither authorization norauthenticationDatabase EncryptionEncryption is the process oftransforming data to unreadable form so that no one can access it without adecryption key. The process uses both Socket Layer (SSL) and Secure Shell (SSH)protocols. SSL drives the ‘https://’ in Amazon and E-Bay (Jueneman et al.
,2015). Ideally, SSL data is encrypted between a web server and a client before itstransfer between the two whereas SSH data engrosses both the server and theclient during communication (Jueneman et al., 2015). Sensitive information,like credit card numbers, home addresses, and security numbers, sent over theinternet face fewer risks of interception.
Database Change TrackingChange tracking as a databasesecurity concept enables applications to access changes on user tables togetherwith information about the changes. According to Oluwatimi and Bertino (2016), theintegration of change tracking into an SQL server is no longer required. Thelatter, however, is an essential block for applications with no answer to end-to-endreplications when a custom solution is needed; this challenge is common duringsynchronization and data replication. An example is a scenario that requires differentSQL server databases in synchronizing data.