Attack on Pearl Harbor was a very vicious attack by the Japanese on the US.
On December 7, 1941 US Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japanese fighter jets. United States had been aware of a possible attack since the 1920s and the US became more involved when the Japanese invaded Manchuria. Attack on Pearl Harbor was the beginning of something big, a bloody war between the Japanese and the United States. United States was not expecting such a event, it was such and unannounced attack on the naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. That unexpected attack on December 7, 1941 was originally just preventive effort for keeping the US from interfering with military action the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia. Japan wanted to cripple the pacific fleet so they wouldn’t foil there plan to create a defense perimeter in the Southwest Pacific.
Japanese aircraft launched two aerial attack waves sinking four US Navy battleships and damaging four other battleships. The attacks also led to a high number of deaths. There original plan was too attack all of the US aircraft carriers. The attack on Pearl Harbor resulted in US entry into World War 2.
Japan had always been an ally of the United States. Japan tried to collect their share of treasure from Versailles. Japan ran into some troubles, Woodrow Wilson. Wilson rejected Japan’s claim to German concessions in Shantung. Duan Qirui, a Chinese warlord and politician had borrowed money from Japan to make China’s army stronger. Japan used that loan and wanted it to be repaid by getting the concessions in Shantung. In 1921, at the Naval Conference the US pressured the Britain’s to end their 20 year alliance with the Japanese.
Japan was now isolated, Stalin’s unhappy empire to the north, to the south western powers that distrusted Japan, to the east was rising China. In 1931, Japan occupied Manchuria as a buffer state. Franklin D. Roosevelt was not very happy with Japan’s aggression against the Chinese. FDR took action against the Japanese and cut off all oil supplies to Japan, which was about 90% of Japan’s oil. When Japan seized southern French Indo-China in July 1941, Roosevelt responded by freezing Japanese assets in the United States and ending sales of oil, steel, and scrap iron to Japan. The no oil trade really affected the Japanese in their war effort because no oil means no ships. The oil embargo really crippled Japan’s army.
Japan then had to decide between settling the crisis through diplomacy or by striking deep into Southeast Asia to acquire alternative sources of oil, an action that was certain to meet American opposition. The Japanese wanted commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to revisit the issue. Japan’s feelings of desperation helped Yamamoto persuade the Naval high command and Government to undertake the venture should war become inevitable, as appeared increasingly likely during October and November 1941.By May 1940, when the main part of the United States Fleet was transferred there from the west coast, Pearl Harbor had long been under development as a major naval base. Its Navy Yard had a dry dock capable of holding the largest warships, a marine railway for smaller ones, and an industrial plant for repairing and maintaining these ships. There were abundant mooring and docking locations for ships, including a berthing area along the eastern side of Ford Island that was commonly called “Battleship Row”.
Ford Island, dominating the center of Pearl Harbor, held a Naval Air Station for combat landplanes and patrol seaplanes. Across Southeast Loch from the Navy Yard was a submarine base and nearby was a large “farm” of fuel oil tanks. The base also included a Naval Hospital and other facilities.The Japanese started planning the attack on the US as early as January 1941, 11 months before the attack actually took place. Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was the one who initiated the plans for attack against Pearl Harbor and Commander Minoru Genda was the plan’s chief organizer.
Yamamoto suggested that a single withering attack on Hawaii was an alternative to try to destroy the enemy fleet in the Pacific and to hold European and American colonies as Americans rebuilt the fleet again. Admiral Isoroku named the attack Operation Hawaii. The Japanese stationed themselves approximately 230 miles north of the Hawaiian island, Oahu. Their plan was to hit the Pearl Harbor on a Sunday because they believed the Americans would be less alert and more relaxed on a weekend, which was true they totally caught the Americans off guard. Japan’s main goal was to destroy all of United States aircraft carriers. Since all the aircraft carriers were out training they had no choice but to target the Battleship. Japan managed to destroy some of our battleships.
The Japanese came in with three hundred and fifty planes to bomb the Pearl Harbor. Two Army operators had detected the planes coming in on their radar but were told by their upper command to ignore it because they thought it was the American B-17 planes, which were expected in from the US west coast. The Japanese had to separate the attack into two waves; both attacks were about 45 minutes apart. First wave of Japanese planes struck Pearl Harbor at 7:55 a.m. and was aimed at airfields and battleships. The second wave struck around 8:40 a.m.
and was aimed at the other ships and shipyard facilities. The Japanese managed to destroy nearly 20 American naval vessels, damage eight U.S. Navy battleships, with four battleships being sunk and managed to destroy almost 200 airplanes. Of the eight damaged battleships, two were rebuilt and two were repaired.
Six battleships were fully repaired later in the war. The death toll was pretty high more than 2,000 Americans soldiers and sailors died in the attacks, and another 1,000 were wounded. The effects of the Attack on Pearl Harbor were serious. A lot of people died which the made the Army lockdown Hawaii. Troops took up positions around all of main Hawaiian Islands.
Barriers were placed on beaches in an effort to obstruct a landing.5 All Hawaii airports were taken over by the Army and private planes were grounded. Government buildings including the Iolani Palace were turned into military offices. They military law went into effect for both military personnel and civilians.
The Hawaiian Islands were basically turned into one large military base. All Japanese owned businesses were shut down. Local police, FBI and Army arrested many residents who were considered dangerous. Each resident was fingerprinted and given an identification card, which were mandated to be carried around at all times. Many of Hawaiian residents that were of Japanese descendent were moved in to detention centers. On December 8, 1941, United States joined the Allied Powers.
Three days later, Japanese allies Germany and Italy also declared war on the United States. Two months after the attack on Pearl Harbor President FDR issued an Executive order 9066. Executive order 9066 was designed for the military to make military zones in which the Japanese-American would be held.
As, a result of the Executive order more than 110,000 Japanese-American residents were sent to relocation camps. Japanese lived in relocation camps for months until the late summer of 1942, when they were finally sent to one of 10 internment camps. The outcome of World War II may have been entirely different if the United States had not joined the Allied Powers.
The United States put the draft into action for all men between the ages of 18 to 45 were drafted into fighting for the US, providing over 16 million troops. All automobile factories in the United States were stopped and began manufacturing only vehicles and planes for the war. Women went to work in factories to make war supplies and some even joined the armed forces. Without the United States providing so many troops and supplies, the Allied Powers may not have won.Attack on Pearl Harbor was a very tragic event in US history.
The Japanese kept on pushing North America’s buttons. When the Japanese occupied Manchuria that really ticked off North America, it was a very bad move by the Japanese, FDR was not very happy with Japan’s aggression against the Chinese. In result FDR froze all raw materials going to Japan.
Oil was the biggest export material going into Japan, taking that away really shook Japan’s economy. Japan really planned and implemented the attack on Pearl Harbor. United States was caught off guard by the bombing. United States was really shaken up by the whole thing. We weren’t expecting such a thing from the Japanese. United States eventually joined the Allied Forces with World War 2. The US really taught the Japanese a lesson they needed to learn.
I chose Pearl Harbor as my topic because it was the United States biggest shock ever because nothing like that ever happened in all of history. There has been a lot of wars in this world but nothing like that ever happened like on December 7, 1941. It was the worst day in America. Also this topic was important because so many people lost their lives and now their is a day for all those people who died.